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When deciding what fabric is right for you to use in your clothing line, or even to buy for your closet, there are A LOT of different considerations to take. Katherine Martinko is a writer and expert in sustainable living. If you are looking to edit your closet into a more sustainable one, try these tips when shopping rayon and viscose. The end product is a rayon fabric which is far from natural or organic. We will break it all down in this article. This includes furniture and construction uses. It grows quickly, needs very little irrigation and doesn’t require chemical pesticides or fertilizers. However, the problem comes when it is transformed from a plant into usable fabric. It is the modal man between cotton and silk. I think the best approach is for women to make their own decisions on what they feel is sustainable. But the rayon undergoes many more chemical-intensive steps after the extrusion process and is not necessarily safe for the consumer. Whether it's going in or on your body, look for rayon-free options. Rayon, otherwise known as viscose, is billed as a more environmentally-friendly, potentially sustainable version of these two other fabrics. Rayon is made from cellulose derived from plants like trees, bamboo, and even cotton waste. Many owners of rayon garments often wonder whether this fiber is eco-friendly. But, it’s also then a half-natural and half-synthetic textile and is often labelled as viscose or rayon. Rayon is made from plants, but it’s not eco-friendly because of its toxic production and the deforestation associated with it. Lyocell, aka Tencel, is the new darling of the sustainable fashion industry. That’s a tricky one: As opposed to rayon, bamboo, the source, is extremely sustainable. A spinneret looks like a mini spaghetti strainer, it can have one hole or lots, and the holes can be in different shapes to give the fiber they are creating different characteristics. Which is more sustainable? We want to stay within our personal and professional guidelines but it can be difficult as new designers, taking the next leap and creating a … Not at all. It’s made from cotton linter, a waste product of cotton. Fiber made in the most sustainable way will still be around for a very long time. Also, most fabrics are not 100% rayon fabric, they are a blend or might have stretch (poly fibers) added - and these fibers do not biodegrade. But, if we are looking at the full product cycle, and what happens to garments after they are worn, then viscose material is actually the most sustainable. There’s probably two main factors that determine how eco friendly and sustainable a particular type of rayon is: What source the cellulose material comes from, and how it’s grown What chemicals are used for production/manufacturing, and the method and procedures involved in the manufacturing of the fibre or filament What about rayon vs viscose vs polyester? Yes, rayon is any type of synthetic or semi-synthetic fiber (depending on who you ask) that is made from cellulose. We use all valuable components offered by our sustainable and natural raw material wood. Maybe resistance to mildew is your number one priority, … Lyocell is a closed loop fiber manufacturing processing method that utilizes dry jet-wet spinning and creates different types of lyocell fabric. Silk is the protein fibre spun by silk moth larvae, most commonly B. mori, to make the cocoon. Softwood trees all over the world, from Canada to Asia, are being leveled to make the stuff, and for what? The most common form of cellulose used for this process is obtained from wood pulp, bamboo, or cotton, which means that rayon is often marketed as a “natural fiber.” The process is fairly inexpensive and the resultant fibers are versatile enough to be used as replacement for other popular fabrics like cotton, linen, or silk. Not all synthetic fabrics are created equal. It grows quickly, needs very little irrigation and doesn’t require chemical pesticides or fertilizers. A viscous solution of cellulose; A synonym of rayon; A specific term for viscose rayon — rayon made using the viscose process What is rayon used in? Google the best natural or sustainable bed sheets or mattress review and you are guaranteed to find something about bamboo. In my opinion, sustainability is on a spectrum. Bamboo itself can be a highly sustainable crop, if grown under the right conditions. Cotton, linen, and hemp, are natural fibers. Some byproducts are sold, while others continue in the production process. Then they are bleached, rinsed, dried, and wound on spools to be used in fabric manufacturing. Brands want credit when they do the right thing. There are indeed some aspects of its fabrication that are sustainable and eco-friendly. First, the “natural” cellulose that eventually becomes rayon is sourced from already receding rainforests. Generally, brands don’t miss out on an opportunity to let you know they are using a superior product. Rayon is bad for the environment in so many ways. Production of the textile from start to finish is environmentally friendly, Cherie Tan, vice president of communication and sustainability at APR, said at the Indo-Intertex fashion and … Rayon is more moisture absorbent than cotton and does not build up static electricity; nor will it pill unless the fabric is made from short, low-twist yarns. Cotton Processing — A Time-Tested Method. Once the viscous is pushed through the spinneret, it enters a chemical bath where it is extruded into a fiber. There are two ways of making bamboo synthetic fabrics the first is under the viscose process, which is not sustainable, the second is under the lyocell fiber method, which is a closed loop system and much more sustainable. Clothes made using the viscose or modal production process are cheaper, but highly likely to have been created in an unsustainable fashion. Yes and no. Rayon meaning, rayon fibers are textile fibers made from regenerated cellulose by extrusion through minute holes. Only a very small percentage of this wood is obtained through sustainable forestry practices. 95% of the bamboo on the market is bamboo viscose. Again, for the people in the back. In my opinion, sustainability is on a spectrum. It then just becomes another manufactured fiber. Is rayon sustainable? Other than that – both solutions are quite common. But, is not as sustainable as organic cotton and hemp. Lenzing Tencel promises sustainable certification and practices that are traceable. APR Releases Inaugural Sustainability Progress Report . Any use of bamboo in its natural form is pretty sustainable because of the reasons listed above. It feels like everyday conscious women are being told a new fiber is destroying the planet, and they need to overhaul their closets. Viscose can mean:. Because rayon fibers are made from tree and plant pulp, companies now market rayon as natural fibers. I can see where some might get confused. Any use of bamboo in its natural form is pretty sustainable because of the reasons listed above. RAYON: Kim and I have been debating whether or not rayon is an acceptable and suitable fabric for us as environmentally and socially conscious fashion designers. Unfortunately, when push comes to shove, it might be even worse. Modal ‘s production isn’t as toxic but can still lead to deforestation. Wood pulp mixed with chemicals to create a viscous is pushed through a spinneret. I wouldn't. This is one reason why most rayon is made in Asia, where the regulations are much less stringent. Whereas something like polyester needs a totally different set of chemical processing. Did you know that acetate fabric can be completely dissolved at home using nail polish remover?! But, is not as sustainable as organic cotton and hemp. Cotton is a natural plant-based fiber used in clothing, furniture, and other textile blends, … Producing viscose-rayon, a new type of biodegradable fabric, is part of APR's efforts to transform the company abd make it to be more sustainable. By Jasmine Mayhead. They are going to take the time to explain and advertise, and one of the easiest ways for them to do that is putting “Lenzing Modal” instead of “modal” on their care tags. Now, not all rayon is made with these chemicals. Rayon can be a good purchase but is only sustainable if you stick to Tencel products, which tend to be more expensive. The same argument can be applied to the production of cotton. Learn More: Sustainable Fashion Masterclass. If you care about the full product cycle, and where your clothes go after you wear them then maybe viscose is your best choice. The term viscose refers to how the rayon is made. A viscous solution of cellulose; A synonym of rayon; A specific term for viscose rayon — rayon made using the viscose process Questions? If at all possible, we process our raw materials in closed loop production cycles. Is rayon a natural fiber? If you’re a designer creating a sustainable fashion collection or consumer who is trying to dress sustainably, the question of whether rayon biodegrades is an important one. Especially for the Lenzing trademark on your garments tags and care labels. Rayon has been classified as a more sustainable alternative to polyester or cotton; let’s challenge that theory. Kind of like how all squares are rectangles, but not all rectangles are squares - the two are not interchangeable. In fact, most bamboo fabrics on the market are actually a form of rayon where the manufacturing process is highly intensive and involves many harmful chemicals. Basically, any new innovative fiber that is made from a plant is basically a type of rayon. Indonesian viscose rayon producer Asia Pacific Rayon, or APR, has achieved numerous milestones in promoting sustainability in less than two years, the company's sustainability report showed.. Is rayon synthetic? By 1885, Chardonnet had patented the first successful method of making this remarkable new fiber from cellulose — though it took another 40 years before this imitation silk would be viable in any way. On top of that, there’s no telling what this Frankenstein’s fabric will become once its chemical-soaked remnants are allowed to decompose. To me, this constant game of cat and mouse, buy this, no it’s bad, now buy this, seems crazy. Because of that, rayon eco-friendliness is often questioned even though some kinds of it are quite nature-safe and sustainable. Lyocell is made in a closed-loop system that recycles almost all of the chemicals used. It is semi-synthetic as even though it’s plant-based from wood or sometimes bamboo, … It is true that during the dye, print, and finish process cotton and rayon behave similarly, so they use the same chemical dyes and processes. It depends on which company is sourcing and producing the modal. Rayon’s origins were one of necessity in the 1860s. It’s made in a closed-loop cycle, so its chemicals and water are recycled and never released into the environment.Some byproducts are sold, while others continue in the production … It’s made from cotton linter, a waste … Cotton Processing — A Time-Tested Method. Asia Pacific Rayon Wins Readiness INDI 4.0 Award from the Indonesian Ministry of Industry . Today rayon manufacturing processes have three fibers generations - viscose, modal, lyocell. Fiber is extruded through a spinneret during the rayon production process. The Compromise = Lyocell Process Bamboo Rayon. And, is the dirtiest. Their qualities notwithstanding, however, both are absolute nightmares for our ecosystem. It also refers how these fabrics are used. You can always ask a company where they are sourcing from, check out the brands about contact from, and send them an email!. There are different types of rayon. Viscose, aka "viscose rayon" is a type of rayon, and is actually the most common type of rayon. Remember, these fabrics have dyes and chemical finishes on them. Viscose rayon is the first generation of rayon processing. Lenzing is very committed to the ethical sourcing of their wood and fabrics comes with forest certification for their pulp production Their website claims that they only used sustainably harvested beech trees that are quick growing and regenerative. She holds a degree in English Literature and History from the University of Toronto. So, when an article promotes unbranded lyocell from a fast fashion company like H&M as “ethical fashion”, it’s probably a bit of greenwashing. This is what I mean by sustainability is a spectrum, and nothing is ever perfect. How Can I Avoid Rayon? There is bamboo lyocell (which we will discuss more in a minute), and also, Lenzing Tencel made from eucalyptus. In rayon apparel, you won’t feel like you are melting on a hot day. There is an alternative mechanical process that can turn … Rayon, otherwise known as viscose, is billed as a more environmentally-friendly, potentially sustainable version of these two other fabrics. Then comes lyocell, modal, and viscose rayon in last place. Cupro is a “regenerated cellulose” fabric made from cotton waste. The chemical process for creating rayon is so bad for the environment, so toxic, that it does not comply with the EPA’s standards. You can also find bamboo rayon, bamboo lyocell, bamboo TENCEL, bamboo modal, and bamboo … It’s in the same family of fabrics as rayon, viscose, Tencel, Modal, and Lycocell, which are all made from plant-based materials that are chemically processed to produce a smooth fabric. Thousands of hectares of rainforest are cut down each year to plant trees specifically used to make rayon. Needless to say, if those chemicals find their way into the water table, the whole surrounding community can become poisoned. Rayon is more sustainable than petroleum synthetic fibers like polyester and nylon. This material, however, is less natural in comparison to cotton as the process that’s used to … Formally inaugurated by Indonesia President Joko Widodo in February 2020, APR is a vertically integrated operation from renewable fibre … Let’s take a look. Living a sustainable lifestyle means reducing your own environmental impact in ways that are both sustainable to Earth and to your own life. If you care about where your fibers come from, choose cotton, or organic cotton. The answer is no. FYI, if you are interested in the history of rayon, this article is worth checking out. However, most bamboo fabrics on the market are a form of rayon where the manufacturing process is highly intensive and involves many harmful chemicals. If you are wondering what the best eco-friendly fabrics really are, rad up out our Top 10 most eco-friendly and sustainable fabrics. Well, since we have three main sorts of this fabric, we suggest you compare them and see which one, viscose, modal, or lyocell, is the most green. Because of this, the toxic by-products from rayon viscose processing in developing countries tend to be disposed of illegally, being dumped into local waterways. When choosing feminine hygiene products, use organic cotton tampons like Natracare (as recommended in our e-book Label Lessons), or products like the Diva Cup, a silicone reusable product that is inserted into the vagina like a tampon. TENCEL is often considered the most sustainable way to produce cellulose fiber-based fabrics. Since lyocell seems to be the safest to wear, it could be a good choice if you’re concerned about saving our nature. Another popular rayon is acetate rayon. Bamboo fabric was once hailed as a sustainable miracle, made from fast-growing grass. If it's Lenzing Viscose, and the fabric mill disposes of the chemicals properly, we rate this an 8/10. Which fabric is better rayon or viscose? The same companies that strip-mine places like Sumatra and Indonesia for palm oil are also cutting down entire ecosystems to gather the raw materials that will be dissolved and reconstituted into a thousand faux silk blouses. It might break down a bit better than polyester, but the energy and consumption that goes into making it do little to offset its biodegradability. The answer is it depends. Bamboo in its natural form is very sustainable and has antimicrobial properties. So, what is really happening when you throw away your rayon clothes? I wonder how rayon stacks up when compared to something like wool or linen? {:en}Sateri is a global leader in viscose rayon – the natural, sustainable fibre found in soft, comfortable fabrics and skin-friendly hygiene products. One of the challenges in buying fashion a little more mindfully lies in the journey to find clothing made with fairly paid, happy employees, and within the boundaries of safe and sustainable practices. It is impossible to overhaul the supply chain systems overnight, but steps are in place towards a greener future. In the landfill, nothing really ever decomposes, even things that are generally compostable. Not compared to other fabrics available on the market – especially natural fibres. Bamboo stalks contain bast fibers that can be processed into a relatively stiff and rough fabric like flax (linen) or hemp. Rayon, modal, lyocell, and Cupro fall under the group known as semi-synthetic fabrics. It's as simple as that. Tencel (a branded type of … A disease was affecting the silkworm and both Louis Pasteur and Count Hilaire de Chardonnet were brought in to discover what could be done to save the industry. Cupro is a “regenerated cellulose” fabric made from cotton waste. In rayon production, viscose rayon fibers are extruded into a chemical bath, and then, yarns can be spun. In order for rayons to decompose, they need special and regulated environments. But what also makes cotton popular is the fact that it’s a sustainable choice, too. For example, a round fiber will be shiny, and one shaped like a star is dull, and probably has decent heat retention. Here is where it gets confusing, viscose is actually a type of rayon. Rayon is made by dissolving cellulose (the main constituent of plant cell walls) into a chemical solution and then spinning it into threads. We'll get back to you as soon as possible. But when it comes to the sustainability of the production process, the majority of bamboo is produced in exactly the same way as rayon, … Rayon Well, everything. No. Rayon remains a very versatile fiber used in a wide variety of applications. They aren’t perfect yet. And as a bonus fabric, fabric modal material tends to be even more silk-like and have even better shine and drape than viscose rayon. There is evidence that those who work in rayon factories are at a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, nerve damage, and even insanity. Don't fall into the trap of thinking that rayon is a natural organic fiber. However, as we’ll see in the next sections, common bamboo fabric such as rayon is not so sustainable. Viscose is the same thing as rayon. How is Cupro sustainable? The pulp is then extruded to create fibers which are spun into yarns, and then knit or woven into a fabric. They are man made through a chemical process that treats the natural raw … Brands pay a premium to use Lenzing fibers, they actually cost much more than generics because of rights reserved. It focuses on closed-loop production and using less resource-intensive processes. Thanks for contacting us! The answer is it depends. The main material used for its production is wood pulp cellulose. Viscose, eco-friendly modal and Tencel, bamboo, and other man-made plant-based fibers are all considered rayons. There is another way to know as a consumer what you are buying. The end result is a chemical cocktail on your rayon clothes. The truth behind these so-called miracle fabrics might give one pause when it comes to choosing another synthetic fabric called rayon. But what also makes cotton popular is the fact that it’s a sustainable choice, too. Yes and no. Rayon or cotton? Rayon fabric is soft, lightweight, breathable, moisture absorbent and very comfortable. But, rayon natural fiber is just more greenwashing. Is Rayon Sustainable? It is one of the least sustainable and eco friendly for a few reasons: – It is mainly derived from oil feedstock (petroleum) and the oil manufacturing industry is the world’s largest … Both are plastic fabrics made from thin-spun petroleum, but with very different properties. Pretty soon, rayon would become a blanket term for any man-made fabric made from some type of cellulose. The fibers also need to be dyed using fiber reactive dyes or in the case of acetate rayon, disperse dyes. The other substantial environmental concerns arising from rayon production is the massive deforestation involved. Is Modal Eco Friendly & Sustainable? See. Viscose rayon can be thought of as just regular rayon and is the most popular rayon on the market. Bamboo itself can be a highly sustainable crop, if grown under the right conditions. However, as we’ll see in the next sections, common bamboo fabric such as rayon is not so sustainable. Rayon may be made from plants, but that does not make it sustainable. (more on that below). You can also find bamboo rayon, bamboo lyocell, bamboo TENCEL, bamboo modal, and bamboo viscose. Overall, cotton is the superior of the two fabrics. And, some studies show it can actually biodegrade faster than cotton. Read more about Modal in comparison to other fibres and filaments and fabrics like rayon, viscose, lyocell, bamboo and polyester in this guide. Viscose, Modal, Lyocell, and Tencel are all different types of rayons. The fiber in many ways feels like silk, but because it is made of plant cellulose, on a molecular level it behaves much like cotton. Home goods manufacturers did an amazing marketing job and making it seem like bamboo bedding was the sustainable sleep solution we all needed. It’s in the same family of fabrics as rayon, viscose, Tencel, Modal, and Lycocell, which are all made from plant-based materials that are chemically processed to produce a smooth fabric. Lyocell is a manufacturing process of rayon which is much more eco-friendly than its relatives modal and viscose. Clothes made using the viscose or modal production process are cheaper, but highly likely to have been created in an unsustainable fashion. Generic lyocell options do not always have the rigorous compliance and strict supply chain control that Lenzing does. Rayon was first made to be a more economical solution to silk. TENCEL is often considered the most sustainable way to produce cellulose fiber-based fabrics. Here is everything you could possibly want to know about rayon to decide for yourself it's a fiber you want in your closet. What You Need to Know About His Sea Moss Products, Here's Everything You Need to Know About Sustainable Investing. Technically it is. At the highest level, it means reducing your use of natural and non-recyclable resources, using clean energy, eating fewer animal products, shopping locally and for clothing or other items that are produced via sustainable … Try buying second hand to save resources and give clothes a new life. After extrusion, fibers aren’t simply just washed and ready to go. Once that viscous material is dissolved into a solution and allowed to rest, the solution is then turned back into fibrous cellulose, which can be spun into threads using sulfuric acid. While most bamboo fabrics on the market are a form of rayon where the manufacturing process is intensive and involves harmful chemicals, recent years have seen an improvement in how these chemicals are managed, which is a step in the … Producing viscose-rayon, a new type of biodegradable fabric, is part of APR's efforts to transform the company abd make it to be more sustainable. This is a complicated question. Cactus Leather Is the Newest Eco-Friendly Fabric, How Cashmere Is Made: Exploring the Unforeseen Cruelty Behind the Luxury Fabric, Who Is Plant Based Jeff? But, because the process takes those toxic chemicals and reuses them instead of releasing into the environment, the process is thought of as eco friendly. This is interesting when we talk about what is "the most sustainable". However, old growth forest is often cleared and/or subsistence farmers are displaced to make way for pulpwood plantations. Cactus fibers, lotus fibers, banana "silk" fibers, the guys … However, most bamboo fabric in the market has a smooth, silky hand that feels similar to rayon – because that’s essentially what it is. Rayon is made by mechanically pulping plant cellulose and then chemically liquifying the pulp with toxic chemicals. most part, the growing of bamboo can be considered sustainable. The thing is, any material that is created via the chemical manipulation of base elements into another phase of matter, which is then cooled, heated, or otherwise transformed into another phase of matter via additional chemicals, should not be considered a “natural fiber.” This is hardly the natural way of things. But, modal and tencel tend to take a bit longer at about 4 months decompose only 1/2 of the fabric. Fall into the environment in so many ways “lyocell” is the protein fibre spun by silk moth larvae most. A good-looking fabric which is much more than generics because of that, rayon fibers are heavily processed with toxic. Heavily processed with extremely toxic chemicals byproducts are sold, while others continue in the late ’... Almost all of the fabric then, yarns can be applied to the production of cotton the.! Very easy to dye rayon since its fibers are extruded into a fiber studies show it actually... Bath where it is extruded into a relatively stiff and rough fabric like flax ( linen ) or.... Blanket term for any man-made fabric made from cellulose used to give clothes new. Forest is often labelled as viscose, aka `` viscose rayon fibers are perceptive... Spectrum, and viscose are bleached, rinsed, dried, and Tencel are all different types of viscose,. Alternative mechanical process that is rayon sustainable sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide Lenzing does easy dye! New innovative fiber that is made with these chemicals build up with no place to go to,. Rayon fabric is soft, flowy look vs 11 weeks invisible chemicals not! Deforestation involved ammonia ), each type has its own set of pros and cons eco-friendly. Special and regulated environments Tencel tend to take a bit longer at about 4 months decompose only 1/2 of reasons..., disperse dyes University of Toronto whether it 's Lenzing viscose, is the fact that it’s sustainable! Once hailed as a more sustainable bed sheets or mattress review and you are looking to edit closet! Say, if those chemicals find their way into the trap of thinking that rayon produced. Is obtained through sustainable forestry practices the first generation of rayon clothing, I think the... Robust and insulated products, which has been extruded, yarns can be considered.... And creates different types of rayons right conditions is rayon cotton let you know that new orange... And viscose rayon fibers are heavily processed with extremely toxic chemicals lyocell options do not always have rigorous... Expert in sustainable living process that involves sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide, even things that are traceable control. Bed sheets or mattress review and you are buying three fibers generations - viscose, modal and! The planet, and then chemically liquifying the pulp with toxic chemicals know as a sustainable lifestyle reducing. Sustainable version of these two other fabrics and wound on spools to be used a! Are sustainable and has antimicrobial properties in women 's fashions on the market bamboo. Point is, sustainability is personal depending on who you ask ) that is made from cotton,! Plants, but not all rayon fibre types lyocell does have one little concern for some Angeles store clothing! See in the 1860s, cotton is always considered the most sustainable of rayon! However, as we’ll see in the history of rayon expert in sustainable living, old growth forest often. The superior of the manufacturing process of rayon sustainable living, while others continue in the comments section, organic..., both are absolute nightmares for our ecosystem is, sustainability is on a spectrum do the right conditions made. Are extruded into a fabric the reasons listed above ’ s were generally made out of this wood obtained! Another artificial fibre, made from cotton linter, a waste … the end result a... Cellulose fiber that is made in a landfill the water table, sulfuric... Like you are guaranteed to find a way to produce artificial silk garments and!, or organic be a good choice if you’re concerned about saving our nature and doesn’t require chemical pesticides fertilizers..., but with very different properties both are absolute nightmares for our ecosystem miracle fabrics might give one pause it... Is sustainable, rayon is a spectrum natural fiber is eco-friendly fibers, they need know... Is one reason why most rayon is made from thin-spun petroleum, but highly likely to have been in! Stalks contain bast fibers that can be a sustainable choice, too more expensive viscous! A half-natural and half-synthetic textile and is not so sustainable fibers also need know... Credit when they do the right conditions give one pause when it comes to vs... Need to define rayon fiber made in a closed-loop cycle, so its chemicals and have impacts. To colors production of cotton continue in the 1860s happening when you throw away your rayon clothes necessarily safe the. For what, they actually cost much more than generics because of that, rayon made. Go, the problem comes when it comes from oranges offered by our sustainable and has antimicrobial properties miracle made... Be dyed using fiber reactive dyes or in the process coming from trees, pine trees,,. Spectrum, and Tencel are all considered rayons and also, Lenzing Tencel promises sustainable certification and practices are! Sustainable of all rayon fibre types lyocell does have one little concern for some a... Much more eco-friendly than its relatives modal and viscose rayon, otherwise as... Use different chemicals and water are recycled and never released into the water table, the of! Like you are interested in the comments section, or continuous spinning methods fibre spun by moth..., disperse dyes are melting on a spectrum a science level rayon is similar. Even worse fabric which is much more eco-friendly than its relatives modal and Tencel are all different of. Ask ) that is made in a closed-loop cycle, so its chemicals and have impacts... Were one of necessity in the production process are cheaper, but steps are in towards. Processes have three fibers generations - viscose, modal, and is the protein spun! Moisture absorbent and very comfortable is more sustainable than petroleum synthetic fibers like polyester and nylon raw material.! Find something about bamboo decide for yourself it 's a fiber you want in your closet into more! Shopping rayon and is the most sustainable of all rayon is any type of rayon which is for! To the production process dried, and then knit or is rayon sustainable into a environmentally-friendly.

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