Most studies did not examine the differences between genders. Child labor alludes to the practice of employing children full-time in industries, often under dangerous and unhealthy conditions. Children can be found in almost any economic sector. The response to the problem must be as versatile and adaptable as child labour itself. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. They can be direct and indirect, static and dynamic, positive and negative, causal and spurious. Study on child labour in automobile workshops of Peshawar, Pakistan. According to the ILO’s Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, child labor is the enslavement (i.e., sale, trafficking, debt bondage, serfdom, compulsory labor) of anyone under the age of 18. They reported that ACEs are risk factors for many adverse health outcomes.9. For decades, child labor has been an important global issue associated with inadequate educational opportunities, poverty and gender inequality.1 Not all types of work carried out by children are considered child labor. Although it can have positive effects, in some situations it has negative effects on health and development of the children. (4,43,85) In 2019, the Ministry of Health launched the Health Service System Development to Rescue and Protect Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor training program. In total, 24 studies were conducted in one country; one study included data from the Living Standard Measurement Study of 83 LMIC.8. Address correspondence to Abdalla Ibrahim, E-mail: Search for other works by this author on: Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, USA, Jazan University, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Division of Global Neurosurgey and Neurology, Duke University, Durham, USA, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA, Child labor. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that attempts to summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on both physical and mental health, based on specific outcomes. Ambadekar NN, Wahab SN, Zodpey SP et al. Fassa AG, Facchini LA, Dall’Agnol MM et al. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. For this, the involvement of the relevant stakeholders like health and safety experts ( they know about hazards and health outcomes), labour inspectors (they know how to enforce the law) and general health experts (they know about the vulnerability and health outcomes in the child and are the first-line care givers), is absolutely essential. And one of the sad characteristics of child labour in agriculture are the few, if any opportunities for advance or change. Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Child labor refers to work that threatens children’s health and safety or deprives their right to education (Herring). Cancer, infertility, chronic backpain and IQ reduction are some of the expected long-term outcomes. For children working as domestic labourers, the hazards are sometimes not that obvious. The International Labor Organization (ILO) describes child labor as ‘work that deprives children of their childhood, potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development’.2 This definition includes types of work that are mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children; or disrupts schooling. Let’s have a look at some facts on child labor. Children’s Manifest Anxiety Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory, Social life and habits, nutritional habits, recent complaints (last 2 weeks), chronic illnesses, health during the last year, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, Age, gender, working lives, workplace characteristics, family income, family status including number of siblings and parents, Physical, emotional and sexual abuse, as well as physical neglect, Developing countries according to the WB classification, Gender, adult mortality rate for men, adult mortality rate for women, percentage of the population below the poverty line, percentage of adults infected with HIV/AIDS, percentage of the population undernourished, percentage of children aged 10–14 years who were workers (child labor prevalence), The mortality rate among boys aged 10–14 years, the mortality rate among girls aged 10–14 years, and the percentage of the population aged 10–14 years undernourished, Age, gender, employment duration, working hours, Age, duration of employment, working hours per day, reasons for working, Systematic symptoms including respiratory, GIT, Musculoskeletal, skin and CNS symptoms, Eye strain and repeated injury, Physical health (respiratory morbidities), Age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure, X-ray, Respiratory morbidities (TB, Hilar gland enlargement/calcification), Copyright © 2021 Faculty of Public Health. However, at a global level, most of them are in agriculture (70%). Finally, despite our recognition of the added value of meta-analytic methods, it was not possible to conduct one due to lack of a common definition for child labor, differences in inclusion and exclusion criteria, different measurements and different outcome measures. Child labor - refers to the illegal employment of children below the age of fifteen (15), where they are not directly under the sole responsibility of their parents or legal guardian, or the latter employs other workers apart from their children, who are not members of their families, or their work endangers their life, safety, health and morals or impairs their normal development including schooling. In total, 12 studies compared outcomes between working children and a control group (Table 1). Child labor is a serious global issue that the world is facing these days. The 4.5% of children were HIV positive, 1.7% were hepatitis B positive and 2.6% hepatitis C positive. The present report, prepared for the International Labour Organization by Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa at the Federal University of Pelotas (Brazil), examines the root causes of child Almost 250 million children, about one in every six children aged 5 to 17 on the face of the globe, are involved in child labour. Long hours of work on a regular basis … Only studies written in English were considered. We also retrieved 23 studies through screening of the references, following the screening by title of retrieved studies. This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), 215 million children worldwide between the ages of five and seventeen work under conditions that Further research following a common approach in assessing child labor impacts in different countries is needed. Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. A study conducted in Jordan reported a significant difference in the level of coping efficacy and psychosocial health between working non-schooled children, working school children and non-working school children. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Unfortunately, the results show that these children are at risk of developing short and long-term health complications, physically or mentally. Furthermore, the frequency of reporting any injury or illness increases with the number of hours worked, with significant variation across employment sectors.13 A study in Iran reported that industrial workrooms were the most common place for injury (58.2%). Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. Khan H, Hameed A, Afridi AK. Lastly, one study was a meta-analysis conducted on data of working children in 83 LMIC documented that child labor is significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious diseases.8. Health issues: Child labour can also lead to health complications due to undernourishment and poor working conditions. They often begin to work at a younger age and have a double work burden (at home and in the fields). Total score was the number of items positively evaluated. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Studies that met the following criteria were considered eligible: sample age 18 years or less; study was conducted in LMICs; and quantitative data was reported. The practice still prevails in developing countries, glaring examples being countries in Africa, south-east Asia, and Latin America. Studies were ranked accordingly (poor, fair, good) (Table 1). ["I Indeed Consider it to be a Temporary Solution" - A Qualitative Analysis of the Conditions and Obstacles to Implementation of Psychiatric Home-Treatment in Berlin and Brandenburg]. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. Girls who were younger than 12 years, had no formal education, worked for more than 8 h/day, or had two or more jobs were more likely to experience sexual assault.34. Child labor can create many different problems in the life of a child, such as malnutrition, mental health issues, drug addiction, but also it can violate other children’s rights, like the right to education. None of the patients was using a preventive device at the time of injury. There is no simple, quick fix for child labour, nor a universal blueprint for action. The ILO took its first stance in 1973 by setting the minimum age for work.4 Nevertheless, the ILO and other international organizations that target the issue failed to achieve goals. The work done is generally very dangerous for children. Two studies were concerned with physical growth and development. Some hazards in agriculture are the exposure to pesticides, the use of dangerous machinery or tools (like knives), carrying heavy loads, the presence of snakes, and so on. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. Occupational hazards cause not only short-term health effects (mainly injuries, skin problems, etc), but most effects are long-term and will only become evident in adulthood. Hughes K, Bellis MA, Hardcastle KA et al. This in turn leads to nutritional deficiencies, poverty, and poor health. *The quality is based on the percentage of Downs and Black10 tool, < 50% = poor, 50–75% = fair, > 75% = good. Child labour (British English) or child labor (American English; see spelling differences) refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful. Child labor, sex, and mental health outcomes amongst adolescent refugees. 1) shows the studies selection process. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental ha… Psychosocial Effects of Child Labor. What is the problem with child labor? to exclude studies related to ‘medical child labor’ as in childbirth. Hosseinpour M, Mohammadzadeh M, Atoofi M. Hamdan-Mansour AM, Al-Gamal E, Sultan MK et al. Additionally, as child labor is associated with maternal illiteracy and poverty, children who work are more susceptible to malnutrition,1 which predisposes them to various diseases. Parker1 reported that child labor is associated with certain exposures like silica in industries, and HIV infection in prostitution. Child labor continues to be negatively associated with the physical and psychological health of children involved. Girls are at special risk. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Moreover, the databases used might introduce bias as most of the studies indexed by them are from industrialized countries. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. Maternal adverse childhood experiences, executive function & emotional availability in mother-child dyads. Two authors assessed the quality of studies using Downs and Black tool for quality assessment.10 The tool includes 27 items, yet not all items fit every study. Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. The definition includes the use of children in armed conflict, prostitution and illegal activities such as drug trafficking. The extraction form was piloted to ensure standardization of data collection. A study in Iran explored the prevalence of viral infections (HIV, HCV and HBV) in working children.27 The study reported that the prevalence among working street children was much higher than in general population. Of these, some 179 million (one in eight) are trapped in the “worst forms” of child labour. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. that child labour has a direct impact on their health. Physical assault was higher towards younger children while other types were higher towards older ones.32 A similar study conducted in Turkey documented that 62.5% of the child laborers were subjected to abuse at their workplaces; 21.8% physical, 53.6% emotional and 25.2% sexual, 100% were subjected to physical neglect and 28.7% were subjected to emotional neglect.33, One study focused on sexual assault among working females in Nigeria. The outcomes were measured based on self-reporting and using validated measures, for example, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), in local languages. A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. Although no cause–effect relation can be established, as all studies included are cross-sectional, studies documented higher prevalence of different health issues in working children compared to control groups or general population. Eight studies measured physical health effects through clinical examination or blood samples, in addition to self-reported questionnaires. Child labour can result in extreme bodily and mental harm, and even death. 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