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marcus aurelius' death

Between 170-180 CE, Marcus Aurelius campaigned against the Germanic tribes and toured the eastern provinces of his empire. According to McLaughlin, the disease caused 'irreparable' damage to the Roman maritime trade in the Indian Ocean as proven by the archaeological record spanning from Egypt to India, as well as significantly decreased Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia. 'Meditations' – as well as other titles including 'To Himself' – were adopted later. [162] If his funeral followed those of his predecessors, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, and his spirit would have been seen as ascending to the gods' home in the heavens. He believed Marcus was 'beginning to feel the wish to be eloquent once more, in spite of having for a time lost interest in eloquence'. Despite the shared adoption of Marcus and Lucius, the political realities upon the death of Antoninus Pius in AD 161 were quite different. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', p. 68. [123][304] One son and four daughters outlived their father. [280][note 17] Roman coins from the reigns of Tiberius to Aurelian have been found in Xi'an, China (site of the Han capital Chang'an), although the far greater amount of Roman coins in India suggests the Roman maritime trade for purchasing Chinese silk was centred there, not in China or even the overland Silk Road running through Persia. [145] He then turned over, as if going to sleep, and died. According to Hays, the book was a favourite of Christina of Sweden, Frederick the Great, John Stuart Mill, Matthew Arnold, and Goethe, and is admired by modern figures such as Wen Jiabao and Bill Clinton. Verus oversaw the war effort while Aurelius stayed in Rome. [172] Marcus and Lucius proved popular with the people of Rome, who strongly approved of their civiliter ('lacking pomp') behaviour. Marcus Aurelius' death is often held to have been the end of the Pax Romana and the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. His brother was Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus (usually referred to as Verus). [44] A new set of tutors – the Homeric scholar Alexander of Cotiaeum along with Trosius Aper and Tuticius Proculus, teachers of Latin[45][note 3] – took over Marcus's education in about 132 or 133. Like all great philosophers Marcus Aurelius the noblest of the Emperors of Rome also pondered death. Lucius took the title 'Medicus',[255] and the emperors were again hailed as imperatores, becoming 'imp. But for my part, I admire him all the more for this very reason, that amid unusual and extraordinary difficulties he both survived himself and preserved the empire. [289] Biological sons of the emperor, if there were any, were considered heirs;[290] however, it was only the second time that a "non-adoptive" son had succeeded his father, the only other having been a century earlier when Vespasian was succeeded by his son Titus. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. [94], A significant amount of the correspondence between Fronto and Marcus has survived. But he did not have to fight Cassius as he was murdered by his own soldiers. Friends Who Liked This Quote. His reign is commonly considered to mark the end of the golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana.. In contrast to their behaviour during Antoninus's campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. [71] Marcus would struggle to reconcile the life of the court with his philosophic yearnings. Best known are their daughter Lucilla and their son Commodus. [104], Fronto never became Marcus's full-time teacher and continued his career as an advocate. Who knows better than you how demanding it is! [192] One of those kings, Vologases IV of Parthia, made his move in late summer or early autumn 161. He killed his mother, persecuted Christians and is said to have "fiddled while Rome burned.". While on campaign between 170 and 180, Marcus wrote his Meditations in Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement. [156] As the biographer wrote, 'Verus obeyed Marcus...as a lieutenant obeys a proconsul or a governor obeys the emperor'. [78], On 1 January 145, Marcus was made consul a second time. He would read imperial letters to the senate when Antoninus was absent and would do secretarial work for the senators. Modern scholars have not offered as positive an assessment. Husband of Salonia Matidia: Levick (2014), p. 161. [243] Sohaemus was hailed on the imperial coinage of 164 under the legend .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}Rex armeniis Datus: Lucius sat on a throne with his staff while Sohaemus stood before him, saluting the emperor. His downfall came during the Franco-Prussian War, when his efforts to defeat Otto Von Bismarck ended in his capture. [160], In accordance with his will, Antoninus's fortune passed on to Faustina. He wrote one of the biggest works of philosophy, Meditations, a collection of his thoughts and notes on life based on his Stoic beliefs. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. Do I not know that you went to Alsium with the intention of devoting yourself to games, joking, and complete leisure for four whole days? He asked Fronto for 'some particularly eloquent reading matter, something of your own, or Cato, or Cicero, or Sallust or Gracchus – or some poet, for I need distraction, especially in this kind of way, by reading something that will uplift and diffuse my pressing anxieties. [27][28] Marcus himself was born and raised in the Horti and referred to the Caelian hill as 'My Caelian'.[29][30][31]. [272] He showed marked interest in three areas of the law: the manumission of slaves, the guardianship of orphans and minors, and the choice of city councillors (decuriones). He has symbolized for many generations in the West the Golden Age of the Roman Empire. Unfortunately, Faustina died during this trip. [63] The succession to Antoninus was peaceful and stable: Antoninus kept Hadrian's nominees in office and appeased the senate, respecting its privileges and commuting the death sentences of men charged in Hadrian's last days. [56] As part of Hadrian's terms, Antoninus, in turn, adopted Marcus and Lucius Commodus, the son of Lucius Aelius. The day after that, 7 March 161,[144] he summoned the imperial council, and passed the state and his daughter to Marcus. The Dacias were still divided in three, governed by a praetorian senator and two procurators. [166] On 31 August, she gave birth at Lanuvium to twins: T. Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Dio adds that from Marcus's first days as counsellor to Antoninus to his final days as emperor of Rome, "he remained the same [person] and did not change in the least. He started nibbling on dry bread to give him the strength to stay awake through his morning receptions. It had conveyed the drama of the disaster, and the senate had been awed: 'Not more suddenly or violently was the city stirred by the earthquake than the minds of your hearers by your speech'. [114] Marcus kept in close touch with Fronto, but would ignore Fronto's scruples. [284] In the view of historian Rafe de Crespigny, the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han empire of China during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189), which struck in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185, were perhaps connected to the plague in Rome. The Column and Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius still stand in Rome, where they were erected in celebration of his military victories. [163] The temple he had dedicated to his wife, Diva Faustina, became the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. As tribune, he had the right to bring one measure before the senate after the four Antoninus could introduce. Marcus Aurelius was chosen by Emporer Hadrian to be his eventual successor. Haines's Loeb edition. [100], He wrote Fronto a letter on his birthday, claiming to love him as he loved himself, and calling on the gods to ensure that every word he learnt of literature, he would learn 'from the lips of Fronto'. The most important group of sources, the biographies contained in the Historia Augusta, claimed to be written by a group of authors at the turn of the 4th century AD, but it is believed they were in fact written by a single author (referred to here as 'the biographer') from about 395 AD. [198], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. As the Parthian War ended, the two rulers had to face another military conflict with German tribes in the late 160s. [147], After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus was effectively sole ruler of the Empire. Born: 26 April 121. Lucius Aurelius Commodus was born to the philosopher/king and Faustina the Younger at Lanuvium, a city fourteen miles southeast of Rome on August 31, 161 CE. He may not even have been crowned in Armenia; the ceremony may have taken place in Antioch, or even Ephesus. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Divus Antoninus. How is it between you and me? War and disease threatened Rome on all sides. Recently, he had served as procurator of five provinces. [267], The Costoboci, coming from the Carpathian area, invaded Moesia, Macedonia, and Greece. Marcus Brutus is best known for being a part of the assassination of Julius Caesar. … The ab epistulis Sextus Caecilius Crescens Volusianus, in charge of the imperial correspondence, was replaced with Titus Varius Clemens. He sent for Antoninus, who was at his side when he died on 10 July 138. [54][note 4], On 24 January 138, Hadrian selected Aurelius Antoninus, the husband of Marcus's aunt Faustina the Elder, as his new successor. Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. Italian diplomat Niccolò Machiavelli is best known for writing The Prince, a handbook for unscrupulous politicians that inspired the term "Machiavellian" and established its author as the "father of modern political theory.". He was the tenth of fourteen children and the only son to survive - his twin brother Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius died at the age of four. "[299], In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was local Roman officials who were largely responsible for the persecution of Christians. It too is one of the things required by nature. As the years passed, he received more responsibilities and official powers, evolving into a strong source of support and counsel for Antoninus. When he criticized the insincerity of conventional language, Fronto took to defend it. Having heard the emperor was vulnerable or possibly dead, the ambitious general declared himself Caesar and assumed the throne. The preponderance of Greek tutors indicates the importance of the Greek language to the aristocracy of Rome. [129] Faustina probably had another daughter in 151, but the child, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, might not have been born until 153. [8] Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. His mother, Domitia Lucilla was a noblewoman, heiress to one of the largest brickwork factory in Rome. There was, however, much precedent. His tribunician powers would be renewed with Antoninus's on 10 December 147. [146] His death closed out the longest reign since Augustus, surpassing Tiberius by a couple of months. Barnes, 'Legislation against the Christians'. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. In turn, Antoninus adopted Marcus and Lucius, the son of Aelius. His father was Marcus Annius Verus (III). In 140, Aurelius became consul, or leader of the senate—a post he would hold two more times in his lifetime. [257], During the early 160s, Fronto's son-in-law Victorinus was stationed as a legate in Germany. Marcus and Lucius gave the crisis their personal attention. He was born on April 26, A.D. 121, according to DIR Marcus Aurelius, or perhaps April 6 or 21.He died on March 17, 180. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. [289] At the end of his history of Marcus's reign, Cassius Dio wrote an encomium to the emperor, and described the transition to Commodus in his own lifetime with sorrow:[291]. [266] Soon thereafter, the Iranian Sarmatian Iazyges attacked between the Danube and the Theiss rivers. [149], Although Marcus showed no personal affection for Hadrian (significantly, he does not thank him in the first book of his Meditations), he presumably believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. Faustina accompanied Aurelius on campaigns 170-175 CE and went with him to Syria, Egypt, and Greece. leaves, [109], By the age of twenty-five (between April 146 and April 147), Marcus had grown disaffected with his studies in jurisprudence, and showed some signs of general malaise. Lucius addressed the assembled troops, which then acclaimed the pair as imperatores. There was then a crop of growing corn; there is now a ripe, gathered harvest. [105] Marcus pleaded with Fronto, first with 'advice', then as a 'favour', not to attack Atticus; he had already asked Atticus to refrain from making the first blows. [72], Antoninus demanded that Marcus reside in the House of Tiberius, the imperial palace on the Palatine, and take up the habits of his new station, the aulicum fastigium or 'pomp of the court', against Marcus's objections. Marcus took the Parthicus Maximus now, after another tactful delay. Marcus Annius Aurelius was born into an established Roman family, but not the royal lineage.From these beginnings, it would seem a remote possibility that he would one day become emperor of the Roman Empire, let alone one of the most famous Roman emperors. „If it is not right, do not do it, if it is not true, do not say it. It was the only thing the biographer could find fault with in Marcus's entire boyhood. Ctesiphon was taken and its royal palace set to flame. Marcus made some show of resistance: the biographer writes that he was 'compelled' to take imperial power. The five horizontal slits allow light into the internal spiral staircase. “You boarded, you set sail, you’ve made the passage. Early life (121–161 AD) However, two years later he reverted to the previous values because of the military crises facing the empire. [230], In the middle of the war, perhaps in autumn 163 or early 164, Lucius made a trip to Ephesus to be married to Marcus's daughter Lucilla. [241], Occupied Armenia was reconstructed on Roman terms. Fronto would later explain that he had not dared to write the emperors directly. Discourses, written by a former slave and Stoic philosopher Epictetus, had a great deal of influence over Marcus Aurelius. 'The Roman Empire as Known to Han China'. P. Julius Geminius Marcianus, an African senator commanding X Gemina at Vindobona (Vienna), left for Cappadocia with detachments from the Danubian legions. [189], The early days of Marcus's reign were the happiest of Fronto's life: Marcus was beloved by the people of Rome, an excellent emperor, a fond pupil, and perhaps most importantly, as eloquent as could be wished. Indeed, at his accession, Marcus transferred part of his mother's estate to his nephew, Ummius Quadratus. 58 (1968): 32–50. In the second century, the emperors treated Christianity as a local problem to be dealt with by their subordinates. [20][21] This branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Spain, the Annii Veri, rose to prominence in Rome in the late 1st century AD. I love you and you are not here' in their correspondence. [249] The Parthians retreated to Nisibis, but this too was besieged and captured. Reign (161–180 AD). Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164, citing H. Mattingly. [316] The oldest surviving complete manuscript copy is in the Vatican library and dates to the 14th century. Nonetheless, his biographer attests that his character remained unaffected: 'He still showed the same respect to his relations as he had when he was an ordinary citizen, and he was as thrifty and careful of his possessions as he had been when he lived in a private household'. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161. Lucius had a markedly different personality from Marcus: he enjoyed sports of all kinds, but especially hunting and wrestling; he took obvious pleasure in the circus games and gladiatorial fights. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire. Here’s a collection of quotes detailing what he had to say on the subject. Life and Works. 'Marcus Aurelius as Ideal Emperor in Late-Antique Greek Thought'. If there were anything harmful on the other side of death, [Gods] would have made sure that the ability to avoid it was within you. Marcus married Antoninus's daughter Faustina in 145. He was too anxious to relax. [131] By 28 March 158, when Marcus replied, another of his children was dead. [237] He returned to Rome immediately thereafter, and sent out special instructions to his proconsuls not to give the group any official reception. Marcus Aurelius (r. A.D. 161-180) was a Stoic philosopher and one of the five good Roman emperors (r. A.D. 161-180). However, it was also a 'harbinger of something much more ominous'. ', p. 69. Marcus Aurelius, through decades of training in Stoicism, in other words, had taught himself to face death with the steady calm of someone who … [132] In 159 and 160, Faustina gave birth to daughters: Fadilla and Cornificia, named respectively after Faustina's and Marcus's dead sisters. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 163, citing. [202] Reinforcements were dispatched for the Parthian frontier. The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password – 'aequanimitas' (equanimity). Clemens was from the frontier province of Pannonia and had served in the war in Mauretania. Marcus Aurelius on Embracing Mortality and the Key to Living with Presence “The longest-lived and those who will die soonest lose the same thing. [190] Marcus had displayed rhetorical skill in his speech to the senate after an earthquake at Cyzicus. There had been reverses in Rome's past, Fronto writes,[219] but in the end, Romans had always prevailed over their enemies: 'Always and everywhere [Mars] has changed our troubles into successes and our terrors into triumphs'. Dio asserts that the Annii were near-kin of Hadrian, and that it was to these familial ties that they owed their rise to power. [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. [87] This was the age of the Second Sophistic, a renaissance in Greek letters. III'. Read more quotes from Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[11] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[12][13][14] or at the time of his marriage. [18], Marcus's paternal family was of Roman Italo-Hispanic origins. [81] In April 145, Marcus married Faustina, legally his sister, as had been planned since 138. Commodus (/ ˈ k ɒ m ə d ə s /; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. If there were anything harmful on the other side of death, [Gods] would have made sure that the ability to avoid it was within you. [225] Critics declaimed Lucius's luxurious lifestyle,[226] saying that he had taken to gambling, would 'dice the whole night through',[227] and enjoyed the company of actors. Marcus Aurelius also is known as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Born on April 26, 121, in Rome – Died On March 17, 180, in Vindobona or Sirmio) was emperor of the Roman Empire from the year 161 to the year his death in 180. Lucius asked Fronto to adjudicate in a dispute he and his friend Calpurnius were having on the relative merits of two actors. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.. Marcus Aurelius' work Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered. In. [98] The pair were very close, using intimate language such as 'Farewell my Fronto, wherever you are, my most sweet love and delight. [297], "Alone of the emperors, he gave proof of his learning not by mere words or knowledge of philosophical doctrines but by his blameless character and temperate way of life."[298]. After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus acceded to the throne alongside his adoptive brother, who took the name Lucius Verus. [60] Marcus's adoption diverted him from the typical career path of his class. The major sources depicting the life and rule of Marcus are patchy and frequently unreliable. A collection of his thoughts have been published in a work called The Meditations. His father died when he was three, and his mother and grandfather raised Marcus. Then another: the girl alone. [113] He disdained philosophy and philosophers and looked down on Marcus's sessions with Apollonius of Chalcedon and others in this circle. [39] Marcus was grateful that he did not have to live with her longer than he did. Marcus Aurelius was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 Stoic philosopher. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', pp. [251], By the end of the year, Cassius's army had reached the twin metropolises of Mesopotamia: Seleucia on the right bank of the Tigris and Ctesiphon on the left. [122], On 30 November 147, Faustina gave birth to a girl named Domitia Faustina. Time to disembark. [4], A body of correspondence between Marcus's tutor Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c. 138 to 166. As Antoninus aged, Marcus would take on more administrative duties, more still when he became the praetorian prefect (an office that was as much secretarial as military) when Marcus Gavius Maximus died in 156 or 157. [115], Apollonius may have introduced Marcus to Stoic philosophy, but Quintus Junius Rusticus would have the strongest influence on the boy. [242] A new king was installed: a Roman senator of consular rank and Arsacid descent, Gaius Julius Sohaemus. All citations to the Historia Augusta are to individual biographies, and are marked with a 'HA'. An assassination ended his reign on the Ides of March. [300] The number and severity of persecutions of Christians in various locations of the empire seemingly increased during the reign of Marcus. They would march against Cassius and obtain the “great prize of war and of victory.” But of course, because it was Marcus, this war prize was something wholly different. [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. Share this quote: Like Quote. [179], Lucius was less esteemed by Fronto than his brother, as his interests were on a lower level. [59], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. During the pregnancy she dreamed of giving birth to two serpents, one fiercer than the other. He was the last of the so-called “Five Good Emperors” of Rome, five men who became famous for their leadership of the Roman Empire. Technically this was not an adoption, the creation of a new and different patria potestas. like unto them are the children of men. Historians have criticized the succession to Commodus, citing Commodus's erratic behaviour and lack of political and military acumen. What comes after we die? [85] He had three tutors in Greek – Aninus Macer, Caninius Celer, and Herodes Atticus – and one in Latin – Fronto. Caecilius Crescens Volusianus, in 149, Faustina gave birth to two serpents, one fiercer the! And rule of Antoninus personal life & E Television Networks, LLC by fellow,... Reconcile the life and rule of Antoninus Pius in AD 161 were quite different,! 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