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(2015). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Aphids will unknowingly land on the treated plant, start to feed and within a few days die. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. Insecticide options are given as examples only and do not imply endorsement of one insecticide versus another nor discrimination against any insecticide not mentioned by the authors or the universities. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). 2016), have been evaluated for soybean aphid management, and could potentially provide for better integration of chemical and biological controls for this pest. Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). If pyrethroid resistance is suspected in the aphid population, application of pyrethroid-containing mixtures (e.g., options C and D) may provide pest control, but the pyrethroid component of the product is compromised by resistance and use may provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance. Mites may increase after some insecticides (esfenvalerate, permethrin, zeta-cypermethrin) are applied for control of other pests. 2007). Literature from Asia indicates ‘light’ levels of field-evolved resistance of soybean aphid to organophosphates (Wang et al. Due to the mobility of winged soybean aphids (Schmidt et al. 2015). Aphids may be controlled by using a commercially prepared insecticidal soap product, neem oil extract or pyrethrin, which are all less toxic control options. Implementation of user-friendly scouting tools and other management tactics may decrease unnecessary exposure of the pest to insecticides and, in turn, reduce further development of insecticide resistance. 2011, Hodgson et al. 2011, Tilmon et al. Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to kill insects on cotton and lettuce, and to kill cockroaches, fleas, and termites in houses and other buildings. In response to the challenges that insecticide-resistant soybean aphids pose, growers, consultants and applicators are encouraged to evaluate and select their soybean aphid management practices carefully. Laboratory bioassays performed in 2017 confirmed resistance to pyrethroids in soybean aphid from the aforementioned states and Manitoba, Canada (R.L.K., unpublished data). Furthermore, reports of pyrethroids failing to control soybean aphid in the field were noted from Minnesota and Iowa (Hanson et al. Improvements in the efficiency of soybean aphid scouting, such as the potential for remote sensing (Alves et al. 1Based on review of soybean production guides from the Upper Midwest (Knodel et al. 1) (Koch et al. However, in an assessment of the susceptibility of soybean aphid populations from the North Central Region to the neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam, Ribeiro et al. For the last 17 yr, soybean aphid management has relied almost entirely on the use of foliar-applied broad-spectrum insecticides. Aphis glycines mainly colonized the soybean stem while A. solani prefers the foliage. Insecticide resistance in soybean aphid has emerged as a new challenge to soybean production. The biology, impacts, and management of soybean aphid have been well reviewed (Ragsdale et al. Reproduction of A. glycines was more likely inhibited by the interspecific interactions compared to A. solani. The geographic scope of field failures of pyrethroids for soybean aphid expanded in 2017, including Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota (Fig. We thank Anthony Hanson and three anonymous reviewers for providing critical reviews of an earlier version of this paper and Courtney Garrison for summary of the USDA data. Insecticide … 2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. 2016). If the insecticide application fails to control the pest population, try to rule out other potential causes for an insecticide failure, such as incorrect insecticide rate or application method, unfavorable environmental conditions, or recolonization of a treated field by winged soybean aphids. Zeta-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as a contact insecticide. In the short term, however, cost-effective management of soybean aphid will continue to rely on scouting and threshold-based insecticide applications of the few labeled insecticide groups (Table 1, Fig. Therefore, we caution against the use of neonicotinoid-containing insecticides for a first foliar application to such fields (Fig. However, availability of well-adapted, aphid-resistant soybean varieties remains low (McCarville et al. These authors contributed equally to this work. From 2015 to 2016, soybean aphid populations from Minnesota and Iowa exhibited resistance ratios up to 40-fold for pyrethroids (i.e., bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) (Hanson et al. Aphis glycines mainly aggregated on the stem of soybean plant while A. solani colonized soybean leaves. 2007) through decreased number of pods and seeds, and smaller seed size (Beckendorf et al. Selective insecticides (i.e., toxic to pest, but less toxic to natural enemies), such as flonicamid (Group 29) (Bahlai et al. 2011, Coupe and Capel 2016). In particular, the area of southwest Minnesota (i.e., Blue Earth, Brown, Cottonwood, Faribault, Martin, Redwood, Renville, and Watonwan counties) from which pyrethroid performance issues were first reported (Hanson et al. A., J. Menger-Anderson, C. Silverstein, B. D. Potter, I. V. MacRae, E. W. Hodgson, and R. L. Koch. Finally, if soybean is in bloom, consider insecticide options with reduced risk to pollinators (Zhu et al. Ragsdale, D. W., B. P. McCornack, R. C. Venette, B. D. Potter, I. V. MacRae, E. W. Hodgson, M. E. O’Neal, K. D. Johnson, R. J. O’Neil, C. D. DiFonzo, et al. Hanson et al. As more is learned about the genetics and mechanisms underlying soybean aphid resistance to insecticides, recommendations for resistance management are likely to change. 2012), which has increased selection pressure for these particular groups. Zeta-Cypermethrin. 2012a, Hanson et al. It readily decomposes when exposed to sunlight. 3Insecticides are given as examples only and do not imply endorsement of one insecticide versus another nor discrimination against any insecticide not mentioned by the authors or the universities. 2018, Varenhorst and Wagner 2018). Tabashnik, B. E., D. Mota-Sanchez, M. E. Whalon, R. M. Hollingworth, and Y. Carriere. McCarville, M. T., M. E. O’Neal, and E. W. Hodgson. We also thank James Menger, Ian MacRae, Philip Glogoza, Anitha Chirumamilla, John Gavloski, Patrick Beauzay, and Lesley Lubenow for assistance with our survey efforts in 2017. 2009), spirotetramat (Group 23) (Bahlai et al. Table 1 lists the natural and conventional contact insecticides for the … Aphis glycines showed higher fecundity than A. solani on soybean and the aphids caused unbalanced reduction in population growth on each other. Updated February 9, 2017 Economic Threshold: The recommended threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybeans is 250 aphids per plant (field average) with 80% of the plants infested and … Now if you treat mid or late season, you will get control of any current problem but it would be smart to apply more the following spring. 2012). Fill the spray tank while maintaining … When selecting insecticides, keep in mind that the ‘the primary intention for the use of an insecticide mixture (tank-mix or pre-formulated mixture) is, in most cases, not resistance management but pest management’ (IRAC 2012). This knowledge could contribute to rationalize application of insecticides and to optimize Integrated Pest Management in soybean. Second, as indicated earlier, there are a limited number of insecticide groups available for soybean aphid management (Table 1). 2015), could further increase the use of scouting-based decision making for soybean aphid management. In China, laboratory experiments exposing soybean aphid to lambda-cyhalothrin for 40 generations resulted in the development of 76-fold resistance to that insecticide and cross resistance … Alternation of individual insecticide groups is generally preferred for insecticide resistance management (IRM) (IRAC 2012). 3). © The Author(s) 2018. Hanson, A. McCarville, M. T., M. O’Neal, G. L. Tylka, C. Kanobe, and G. C. MacIntosh. When making insecticide applications, use appropriate nozzles, water volumes, and pressures to ensure thorough spray coverage deep into the soybean canopy (IRAC 2009, Hodgson et al. 2010, Frewin et al. These continued infestations by soybean aphid in parts of the Upper Midwest have resulted in a long history (i.e., about 17 yr) of selection pressure for development of insecticide resistance. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. However, many of these natural enemies are also adversely affected by broad-spectrum insecticides (e.g., organophosphates and pyrethroids) currently used to manage soybean aphid. Zeta-Cypermethrin is one of the newer synthetic pyrethroids on the market. 2012b, Clifton et al. If a soybean field exceeds the economic threshold, use an effective insecticide at a labeled rate (IRAC 2009) (Fig. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Thrips. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Hanson, A. However, the LC 5 of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid … Wu, Z., D. Schenk-Hamlin, W. Zhan, D. W. Ragsdale, and G. E. Heimpel. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 2012, Krupke et al. Resistance can be defined as a ‘genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide’ and more than 500 species of arthropods have developed resistance to insecticides (Tabashnik et al. 2011, Koch and Costamagna 2017). In agroecosystems, plant-pest interactions are at the basis of complex food webs, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. Since the first observation of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America in 2000, it has become the most economically damaging insect of soybean in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Hodgson, E. W., B. P. McCornack, K. J. Tilmon, and J. Knodel. 2016). Ants ward off natural aphid enemies, so ant control is an important aspect of aphid control. Report suspected cases of insecticide-resistant soybean aphids to a local/regional extension educator or extension entomologist. 2007, Koch et al. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management incorporating multiple, proactive tactics. However, in 2015 in Minnesota, failures of foliar-applied pyrethroid insecticides were reported and pyrethroid resistance was confirmed with laboratory bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Cypermethrin is toxic to the nervous … Economically significant infestation of soybean by this phloem-feeding insect can reduce soybean yield by up to 40% (Ragsdale et al. 2According to Insecticide Resistance Action Committtee (IRAC 2018). Use the economic threshold (i.e., 250 aphids per plant with more than 80% of plants infested and aphid populations increasing) to determine if insecticides should be applied (Ragsdale et al. 2012), the risk of insecticide-resistant populations of soybean aphid spreading to soybean fields in other soybean producing regions is high. Unnecessary exposure of soybean aphid to insecticides can result from tank mixing insecticide with other pesticide applications regardless of soybean aphid populations. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin drove A. solani migrating from soybean leaves to stems independently of interspecific competition. 2007). 2012). Currently, any populations of soybean aphid should be considered potentially resistant to pyrethroids. In 2016 and 2017, further reports of failures of pyrethroid insecticides and/or laboratory confirmation of resistance occurred in Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Manitoba. Aphids, like other insects, employ several different mechanisms (i.e., metabolic resistance mediated by monooxygenases, esterases, and glutathione S-transferases; target site insensitivity such as knock down resistance (kdr) and super-kdr; and reduced cuticular penetration) to overcome pyrethroid insecticides (Liu 2012). Ohnesorg, W. J., K. D. Johnson, and M. E. O’Neal. First, economically threatening infestations of soybean aphid continue to occur in Minnesota and portions of Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota (R.L.K., B.D.P., E.W.H., J.J.K., and A.J.V., personal observations), while such infestations have diminished in other parts of the United States (Bahlai et al. In addition, the amount of each active ingredient in some mixtures is less than that of products with single active ingredients. Thrips are extremely minute insects, usually less than 1/16 inch when full-grown. Publication E1878, Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (, Pyrethroid resistance in insects: genes, mechanisms, and regulation, Insecticides: advances in integrated pest management, Soybean aphid-resistant soybean varieties for Iowa. (2011) found no resistance to organophosphates, pyrethroids, or neonicotinoids in field-collected soybean aphid populations from Michigan in 2007 and 2008. Hill, J. H., R. Alleman, D. B. Hogg, and C. R. Grau. 2017). 2007). This graphic was modified from Hodgson and Koch (2018). Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin. (2017) provided the first evidence for soybean aphid resistance to insecticides coupled with reports of these insecticides failing to control the pest in North America. 2012) with varying levels of insecticide susceptibility colonizing the fields. Alternatively, ‘Speed Scouting’ can be used as a more efficient approach to scouting and making treatment decisions (Hodgson et al. Upon reaching threshold, treat the field within 5–7 d to protect yield (Ragsdale et al. Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that mainly affects an insect’s central nervous system, used against a number of insect pests such as aphids, weevils, caterpillars, yellow cereal fly, flea beetles, … Safer Brand 5118 Insect Killing Soap – 16-Ounce Concentrate. This pattern of greater pest pressure in Minnesota and neighboring states is further evidenced by data from NASS (2018). (2016). In fields where pyrethroids failed to control soybean aphid, surviving (i.e., suspected resistant) aphids have sometimes been observed in patches within the field, which may be due to a mixture of aphid genotypes (e.g., Orantes et al. publication E-1143, North Dakota State University Extension Service, Reaping benefits from an invasive species: role of, Non-target impacts of soybean rust fungicides on the fungal entomopathogens of soybean aphid, Biology and economics of recommendations for insecticide-based management of soybean aphid, Management of insecticide-resistant soybean aphids. Adamczyk, T. M., T. M., I. V. MacRae, and C. R. Grau moreover, two... Had chronically high soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management by multiple! 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