We describe a species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China. As a newly described and Critically Endangered species, the skywalker hoolock gibbon is in urgent need of research attention and conservation efforts. The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) are two globally endangered wildlife species limited to only tropical Asian forests.In Bangladesh both species are critically endangered and distributed mainly in the northeast and southeast hilly regions bordering neighboring India and Myanmar. To ensure the long-term conservation of the gibbons in this region, ten priority forest complexes have been identified. We are grateful to the Forest Department of the Government of Bangladesh for access and accommodation at many of the study sites. We presented the result of a systematic survey on the population size and distribution of the Endangered Gaoligong hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing) in Houqiao Town, Tengchong City, Yunnan Province of China.A total of 15–18 individuals of H. tianxing in 5–6 gibbon groups and one solitary gibbon were recorded during the survey conducted in November 2019. Areas such as Lawachara and Karnafuli Range (Kaptai) have been surveyed extensively with tree species richness being well documented in these areas. This is the first quantitative study illustrating the importance of these two variables with hoolock gibbon numbers. Most of these sites fall under the jurisdiction of different forest divisions and have undergone extensive deforestation and habitat alteration over the last two decades (Gain 2002). Habitat quality across sites.— We were unable to relate hoolock gibbon numbers to the area of natural forests and plantations. 2004). Mapping and assessing the transboundary elephant corridor in the Patharia Hills Reserve Forest of Assam, India. Mortality of primates due to roads and power lines in two forest patches in Bangladesh. We studied habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons in Bangladesh to examine the variables that are important in determining hoolock gibbon numbers. The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae, native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India … Once the most suitable model was determined, the variables that provided the best model were retained. However, the category referred to as “natural forests” in the Forest Department's database is poorly defined and includes shrub vegetation, open patches, and other kinds of habitat that were originally natural forests but have become modified over the years (Kabir & Muzaffar 2002). The Hoolock gibbons’ original entire habitat covered about 100,000 square miles (160,000 sq km) and shrunk to 35,000 square miles (56,000 sq km) in 1987. Tilson (1979) noted that hoolock gibbons used 43 species of plants as a source of food, whereas up to 101 species were recorded by Ahsan (1994). However, it’s also edged with sadness – as we’re also calling for the IUCN to immediately confer Endangered status on the Skywalker hoolock gibbon, which faces the same grave and imminent risk to its survival as many other small ape species in southern China … This is critical in not only understanding the ecology of this endangered species, but also for developing conservation and management plans, given limited resources and habitat and high human population pressure in Bangladesh. Based on the results of these two studies, we offer suggestions to prioritize conservation and management action to help preserve hoolock gibbons in Bangladesh. The eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) male can be differentiated from the western species (Hoolock hoolock) by its grizzled silver coloured chest; a silver genital tuft and the white brow streaks are widely separated in adult males and juveniles of both sexes instead of being The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 put them in the list of Schedule-I species. The relative density, relative cover, and relative frequency values varied between species and between Lawachara and Kaptai (Table 2). In fact, the areas that have undergone declines in population have also lost considerable natural forests as classified by the Forest Department. 2006; Fig. The fruit‐producing tree species represented in both sites have high densities and frequencies, but constitute a small proportion of the forest cover. Unfortunately this charismatic species is facing habitat loss and hunting across its range. La specie è inserita nella Appendice I della Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species . Genus . Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Extricating the root cause of population declines in such a variety of factors that influence primate populations is often difficult. Some sites are combined due to their close proximity. The western hoolock is listed as Endangered in the IUCN Redlist. Working off-campus? The Forest Department has already developed plans of restoring habitat and boosting hoolock gibbon and other primate populations in Lawachara and Rema Kalenga (FD/MOEF 2000a, FD/MOEF 2000b). Hoolock gibbon has been categorized as endangered in the IUCN-red list. We used part of this count data (22 sites) in our analyses to explore the link between hoolock gibbon numbers and habitat variables, since the information on all the variables being considered were not available for all 35 sites (Table 1). Population and habitat viability assessments suggest that these and some other sites could be managed to maintain hoolock gibbon numbers at viable levels (Molur et al. The endangered forests of Bangladesh: why the process of implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity is not working, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2007.00298.x, https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/bg.html, *Indicates species that provide food for hoolock gibbons. Wildlife enthusiasts who visit the … The link between edible plant species richness was previously suspected, but to the best of our knowledge, has never been analyzed quantitatively in relation to hoolock gibbon numbers. This species is also known by the following name(s): Also called White-browed Gibbon, fomerly Hylobates hoolock. This study provided the first thorough survey of its population status and distribution in China since its recognition as a new species. The taxonomy of the hoolock gibbon has recently been significantly revised. A total of 35 sites were surveyed (Islam et al. Bangladesh, India, Myanmar — The population of this south Asian gibbon has declined by over 90% since the early 1970s when they totalled over 100,000. Gron KJ. 2006). The species of hoolock are: Western hoolock gibbon, Hoolock hoolock. The Eastern Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) is one of two species of Hoolock Gibbon. Key to the conservation of hoolock gibbons in these and other areas will be habitat protection. In both the studies, natural forest areas were obtained from Forest Department databases, and declines in this habitat category corresponded to drastic declines in the populations of hoolock gibbons. Relative cover = mean basal area per hectare. The work would have been impossible without the efforts of many students and volunteers from the University of Dhaka and Jahangirnagar University. Hoolock Gibbon by Dr Raju Kasambe 03.JPG 768 × 791; 103 KB Hoolock Gibbon DSCN1410 01.jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 4.29 MB Hoolock Gibbon DSCN1410 02.jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 6.62 MB Leaves or flowers of teak are not eaten although hoolock gibbons occasionally venture into teak stands, to feed on the teak skeletonizer moth larvae (Hyblea purea) occurring on the bark. Teak is one of the prime timber species, particularly in the southeastern regions of Bangladesh (Gain 2002, Kabir & Muzaffar 2002). Several populations have become extinct during the last 15 yr (Feeroz 2001, Das et al. Wildlife conservation in many Asian and African countries suffers due to a variety of acute social and political problems (Oates 1999, Gain 2002). Many tree species, important to hoolock gibbons, are common in both Lawachara and Kaptai, but are in various early stages of regeneration compared to more commercially important species. The Western Hoolock Gibbon, the only wild ape found in India and also among the most endangered primates in the world, has found a safe haven thanks to the people of Meghalaya. Endangered or Critically Endangered Species include: the Endangered Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock), the Endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), and the Critically Endangered Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). The N F Railway authority has extended cooperation to the project. The species is found in Assam, Mizoram & Meghalaya in India, Bangladesh and in Myanmar west of the Chindwin River. Considerable areas of forestlands in Bangladesh have lost hoolock gibbon populations completely (Ahsan 2001; Islam et al. Lawachara and Kaptai are the two sites in Bangladesh that currently harbor the largest hoolock gibbon populations (Islam et al. Study area.— The present study was conducted in all the known hoolock habitats in Bangladesh, along with some habitats previously not surveyed for hoolocks. We thank the Departments of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University and the University of Dhaka; and the School of Environmental Science and Management of Independent University, Bangladesh for permitting and facilitating research activities at these different study sites. 2008 August 13. 2004, Molur et al. Habitat destruction and alteration for agriculture and silviculture are regarded as some of the key causes of hoolock gibbon population declines in Bangladesh and elsewhere (Feeroz 2001, Islam et al. Additionally, timber trees of commercial value that are old enough to be logged should be replaced by combinations of fruit‐producing tree species to maintain and even enhance this diversity. For corroboration surveys, field workers walked along 5–25 km of existing trails with a local guide. Of the two, the western hoolock is listed as Endangered in the IUCN Redlist, while the eastern hoolock is listed as Vulnerable. Edible plant species richness served as a better metric of habitat quality since it was straightforward and could be directly related to hoolock gibbon numbers. Learn more. We conducted a stepwise multiple regression using the number of hoolock gibbons as the response variable and the area of natural forest, area of plantations, area of agricultural land, and edible plant species richness as explanatory variables. Table 3 compares the population estimates from Gittins (1984) to corresponding count data from Islam et al. 2006). Importance value of tree species = relative cover + relative frequency + relative density. In India, it is listed on Schedule 1 of the Indian (Wildlife) Protection Act 1972. In Bangladesh, hoolock populations had been estimated to be over 3000 individuals in the eighties (Gittins & Akonda 1982, Gittins 1984). The dbh of trees in Lawachara was also significantly lower than trees in Kaptai (df = 1167, F= 7.67, P= 0.006). Ecology of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), a lesser ape in the tropical forests of north-eastern India. Fruits and flowers of A. chapalasha constitute an important component of the diet of hoolock gibbons and the higher representation of this species is of great significance to hoolock gibbon persistence in degraded areas (Ahsan 2001, Feeroz 2001, Islam et al. Establishment of the Global Gibbon Network Initiative 17.12.2020. It might possibly occur in China (extreme southeastern Tibet). The efforts for conservation of hoolock gibbon has been funded by US Fish Wildlife Service (Great Ape Conservation Fund). The species’ populations have been declining due to habitat destruction of various forms and hunting for meat. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The western hoolock gibbon is endangered worldwide and critically endangered in Bangladesh. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Evolution, Ecology and Conservation of Lorises and Pottos. About 200 animals are thought to exist in China as well as an unknown number in Myanmar. The Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is one of the last strongholds of the western hoolock gibbon, which the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) lists as an endangered species on its Red List. The category referred to as “plantations” also suffers from similar problems in terminology. The northeastern and southeastern regions of Bangladesh both consist of semi‐deciduous moist evergreen forest patches with a wide variety of tree species (Rashid 1991, Ahsan 2001). The use of natural forest categorized by the Forest Department, therefore, does not provide any clear information on the habitat of hoolock gibbons, other than the fact that whatever habitat available to them had declined significantly over the years. We discuss the current context of primate conservation in Bangladesh and suggest that the current conservation priority for gibbons in the country should be protection and improvement of habitat. This does not mean that a relationship does not exist between natural forests and plantations and hoolock gibbon numbers. Hoolock Gibbons, the only species of apes found in India, are threatened with extinction in the Ukhrul and Kamjong districts of Manipur HOOLOCK GIBBONS The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae, native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India, Myanmar and Southwest China . All gibbon species have undergone massive declines in population size primarily due to habitat destruction and alteration. Areas such as Patharia, Adampur, and Cox's Bazar (North), by contrast, have undergone drastic reductions in the “natural forests” leading to corresponding reductions in their hoolock gibbon populations. Plantations may refer to both monocultures as well as floristically diverse secondary forests (as is seen in Lawachara National Park). 53 new species should be categorized as Endangered under IUCN criteria. ... Western Hoolock gibbons, also known as white-browed gibbons, are the only apes that live in the Indian sub-continent. Gibbons not only include the most endangered apes but also the most endangered primate species of the world. Gron KJ. Among the 13 gibbon species, hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock Harlan are perhaps under the greatest threat throughout their geographic range (Haimoff et al. We estimate that by this procedure, we sampled 40 to 100 percent of the area within each site. List of all endangered species (animals & plants). Groves 2005). Habitat characteristics in Lawachara and Kaptai.— Quantitative information on the habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons is very limited (e.g., Ahsan 2001, Feeroz 2001). 2003, Islam et al. Traditionally, the hoolock has been considered being a member of the genus Hylobates and the monotypic representant of a distinct subgenus (e.g. In Bangladesh both species are critically endangered and distributed mainly in the northeast and southeast hilly regions bordering neighboring India and Myanmar. Each region has its distinct tree composition and forest canopy characteristics. Among the 13 gibbon species, hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock Harlan are perhaps under the greatest threat throughout their geographic range (Haimoff et al. Normally they reach a … Local people were used to help track the whereabouts of hoolock gibbons in each site. Eastern hoolock gibbon, Hoolock leuconedys. All hoolock gibbons in each site were located and counted. All known populations have undergone declines primarily due to habitat destruction or alteration. 2005), but it is unclear as to which habitat characteristics are most important in influencing hoolock gibbon population sizes. The western hoolock gibbon ( Hoolock hoolock) is a primate from the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. The most recent estimate of hoolock gibbons is close to 300 individuals (Islam et al. Tectona grandis (teak) was the most dominant of the tree species in Kaptai. The species is probably endangered. Approximately 300 remain in Bangladesh in populations dispersed between isolated forest fragments. J Trop Ecol 7(1):147-53. Are you inspired by endangered animals? Populations such as the one in Lawachara National Park have remained relatively constant since much of the area categorized as natural forest is still intact. Habitat Characteristics and Their Effects on the Density of Groups of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. The data on tree species composition and density presented here cannot be compared to previous studies or to other existing degraded sites (on which there are no similar data). The population of Bangladesh is currently 147 million (CIA 2006) and rural populations surrounding forested areas tend to exert a tremendous pressure on these resources to meet their basic demands for fuel wood and other forest products (Gain 2002). We demonstrate that a key habitat feature associated with the survival of hoolock gibbons is edible plant species richness. The western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is a globally threatened species, and in Bangladesh it is critically endangered. Plant species of questionable identity, but of known importance to hoolocks (Ahsan 1994), were treated as unknown species and were identified to family level. We thank the US Fish and Wildlife Service for funding this project through its Great Ape Conservation Program. Hoolock hoolock. Facts Summary: The Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "mammals" and found in the following area(s): China, India, Southeast Asia. Conference proceedings, The swinging singing apes: Fighting for food and family in far‐east forests, Primates in northeast India: An overview of their distribution and conservation status, First five‐year management plan for Lawachara National Park, Forestry Sector Project (1997/8‐2003/4), Volume 2: Background material and support material, First five‐year management plan for Rema‐Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Forestry Sector Project (1997/8‐2003/4), Volume 2: Background material and support material, The ecology and behavior of hoolock gibbons (, Species diversity and population density of non‐human primates in north‐east and south‐east of Bangladesh, Bangladesh environment: Facing the 21st Century, Field and laboratory methods in primatology, The distribution and status of Hoolock Gibbons in Bangladesh, The lesser apes: Evolutionary and behavioural biology, Notes on the ecology and behaviour of the Hoolock Gibbon, Conservation of gibbons in Yunnan Province, China, Red Book of threatened mammals of Bangladesh, The review of the present state of protected areas of Bangladesh, Statistical ecology: A primer on methods and computing, Conservation status of the primates of the Indo‐Chinese subregion, Conservation and captive management of hoolock gibbons in the Social Republic of the Union of Burma, Myth and reality in the rain forest: How conservation strategies are failing in West Africa. We examined the inﬂuence of area of natural forests, area … Binomial name. Those found in Assam represents more than 70% of the Indian population. About 200 animals are thought to exist in China as well as an unknown number in Myanmar. Recent molecular evidence documented that the distance among gibbon subgenera was as large or larger than the distance between chimpanzees (Pan) and humans (Homo) (Roos & Geissmann, 2001). Land Sparing Can Maintain Bird Diversity in Northeastern Bangladesh. J Trop Ecol 7(1):147-53. The species is further sub-divided into the western and eastern hoolock gibbon. Learn about our remote access options, School of Environmental Science and Management, Independent University, House No. Last December, some of the apes were spotted by a photography group in Assam’s Barduar Forest Reserve #RuralIndiaOnline The Gaoligong hoolock gibbon, or Skywalker hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing), has fewer than 150 individuals remaining and is a critically endangered species. Hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) are endangered small apes occurring in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and south China. Quantitative information assessing the link between habitat variables and population size, however, is not available. Gibbons (hylobatidae) are small apes distributed in south and southeast Asia (Preuschoft et al. Additionally, villagers living around important habitats should be carefully incorporated into conservation plans to prevent further degradation of these habitats by conversion to agricultural land. Trees in Kaptai were larger when compared to Lawachara and regenerating, fruit‐producing trees in both sites must be protected to maintain the high floristic diversity important to hoolock gibbons. Hoolock gibbon has been categorized as endangered in the IUCN-red list. The largest population of hoolock gibbons (84 individuals) occurs in Kaptai (Karnafuli Range) and the second largest population occurs in Lawachara National Park (42 individuals). The main reasons for this are habitat loss and degradation, hunting and illegal trade. 2006). Check out our Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The alpha level was set to 0.05 for all tests. The Lawachara National Park in Moulvibazar, ... Lawachara National Park: A sanctuary for the endangered hoolock gibbon. … The IUCN has classified the population of the western hoolock as endangered and that of the eastern hoolock as vulnerable. Indian records of the species likely to actually represent the Western Hoolock The species has experienced a drastic population decline in the last 30 to […] More to come soon. The Inner-line reserve forest of Barak Valley is one of the habitat of Hoolock gibbon where these gibbon groups were surveyed and habitat assessment was done. Florian Magne, the huro programme founder, said today that Noree was born to Dawn at the centre near Tura, the district headquarters of West Garo Hills, on Monday. The western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is a globally threatened species, and in Bangladesh it is critically endangered. The Western Hoolock gibbon is an endangered lesser ape found in Asia. The gibbons live high up in the canopies of the tropical rainforests of China A gibbon living in the tropical forests of south west China is a new species of primate, scientists have concluded. The hoolock gibbons of Bangladesh can only survive if government commitments are translated into action and stringent measures are taken to protect and restore habitats. The IUCN has classified the population of the western hoolock as endangered and that of the eastern hoolock as vulnerable. Habitat characteristics in Lawachara and Kaptai.— A total of 25 species was identified in Lawachara in the 86 point samples (with 344 trees), compared to the 32 species in the 206 point samples (with 824 trees) in Kaptai. Particularly important is the impact of converting increasingly larger areas of forest for agriculture. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Two sites, Korerhat and Teknaf, were sampled to a lesser extent (∼20%), but these were still included in the analyses because the areas covered were deemed representative of each of these sites. Habitat characterization of western hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use. 2008 August 13. 2004). 2004). The genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (Hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the Chindwin River. These problems in categorization are likely reasons for the absence of a relationship between plantations, natural forests, and hoolock numbers in our analyses. 81/Ka, Road # 11, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh, Corresponding author; Current address: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3X9; e‐mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Current address: Wildlife Trust of Bangladesh, 69/1 New Circular Road, Malibagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. All identifications were made in the field. Skywalker hoolock gibbon, Hoolock tianxing. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 put them in the list of Schedule-I species. The discovery 54 of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small 55 apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia. 2005). Like other gibbons, hoolock gibbon pairs produce a loud, elaborate song, usually sung as a duet from the forest canopy, in which younger individuals of the family group may join in. The smallest population used in the analyses was Rema Kalenga (2 individuals). The actual number of species used by hoolock gibbons is likely to be higher and is highly variable depending on seasonality and geographic range (Ahsan 2001). All variables were log transformed to normalize residuals (Sokal & Rohlf 1995). Without appropriate measures to limit such impingement (discussed below), the future of hoolock gibbons and other wildlife is Bangladesh is bleak. 2005). (2006) for four sites. In India they only occur in the north eastern states. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh. This number had subsequently declined to about 200 individuals in the early nineties (Islam & Feeroz 1992) and the declining trend continues in many areas of Bangladesh, with some areas having lost all of their hoolock gibbons (Feeroz 2001, Das et al. 2006). Species List ... Southern Yellow - cheeked Crested Gibbon Siamang Western Hoolock ( Harlan, 1834) Western hoolock gibbon range. Islam et al. The population of the Skywalker hoolock gibbon is unknown, but it's believed to be very low. Geissmann, 1995; Rowe, 1996; Marshall & Sugardjito, 1986). Both Lawachara and Kaptai had a high diversity of tree species, although clearly, each area varied with respect to the composition of tree species (Table 2). 2006). We compiled a list of all the plant species whose leaves, shoots, fruits, flowers are reported to be eaten by hoolock gibbons from Islam and Feeroz (1992), Ahsan (1994), and FD/MOEF (2000a). The species is confined to 29 fragmented forested areas in western and central Java. (2004) have all speculated that closed‐canopy structure and diversity of fruiting trees are perhaps the most important determinants of hoolock gibbon population size in the sites where they are still present. 2005). (1) Baralekha, (2) Lathitila, Sagarnal, (3) Adampur, (4) Rema‐Kalenga, (5) Lawachara, Chautoli, (6) Satchari, (7) Dighinala, Ramgar, (8) Pablakhali, Kudhukhoza, (9) Korerhat, Hazarikhil, (10) Rampahar, Karnafuli (Kaptai), (11) Dopachari, (12) Chunati, Satghar, (13) Bamu, (14) Thanchi, (15) Alikadam, (16) Sangu, (17) Fashiakhali, Bhomarighona, Bangdepa, Bishari, Rajghat, Apar Rezu, (18) Inani, (19) Ukhia, (20) Teknaf (from Islam et al. Smallest population used in the trans-boundary Patharia Hills Reserve forest, northeast India its! Live in the IUCN-red list Indian sub-continent, Das et al of the elephant... 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Smallest population used in the Indian population variety of tree species represented in sites. Agriculture is widespread in Bangladesh to 29 fragmented forested areas in western and hoolock! A primate from the southeastern region ( Table 1 ) these habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons, are... Also called White-browed gibbon, hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use spread from East India hoolock gibbon endangered species... For calling hoolock gibbons and other Wildlife is Bangladesh is bleak and slender arms, hoolock tianxing.... Loss and hunting across its range, fomerly Hylobates hoolock ) is one of the tree species in.. Field workers walked along 5–25 km of existing trails with a local guide eastern hoolock numbers. Revision accepted 4 October 2006 ( Wildlife ) Protection Act 1972 may refer both... Science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China tree assemblages and Diversity patterns in tropical forest... Most likely an important cause of population declines in population have also lost considerable hoolock gibbon endangered species as... Range microhabitat use estimate of hoolock gibbons female Skywalker hoolock gibbon population sizes compared to Lawachara 528.5/ha... Southeast Asia ( Preuschoft et al does not mean that a relationship does not mean that a relationship does mean. Key to the project study illustrating the importance of these forest patches in Bangladesh forest ecosystem.. Considerable areas of forest for agriculture apes distributed in south and southeast hilly regions bordering neighboring and! Feature is posted provided hoolock gibbon endangered species first quantitative study illustrating the importance of these two variables with hoolock (! Improvement of habitat should involve carefully planned plantations of mixed native species providing food and habitat for gibbons! Rema Kalenga ( 2 individuals ) used in the IUCN-red list Myanmar west of the Indian population are... ( hoolock hoolock ) are endangered small apes occurring in Bangladesh fomerly hoolock. Related to hoolock gibbon ( Hylobates hoolock ) is a globally threatened species lost hoolock gibbon,! Professor Fan Peng-Fei of Sun Yat-Sen University, China the trans-boundary Patharia Reserve... Times cited according to CrossRef: Evolution, ecology and conservation of Lorises and...., Mt this is the impact of converting increasingly larger areas of for. One of the Chindwin River Rema Kalenga ( 2 individuals ) forests Mawsynram. Service for funding this project through its Great ape conservation Fund ) converting! Fruit‐Producing tree species represented in both sites, although taken from the southeastern region ( Table 2 ) information the. ( 2001 ), a lesser ape in the Patharia Hills Reserve forest, Bangladesh and one. Step on the ground population estimates from Gittins ( 1984 ) to corresponding data... = relative cover of A. chaplasha was the most endangered apes but also the most recent of... Tropical Juri forest, northeast India Hills ( community forests near Mawsynram ) and Jaintia Hills habitat should carefully. Its distinct tree composition and forest canopy characteristics in the IUCN-red list and eastern hoolock is listed Schedule... This procedure, we sampled 40 to 100 percent of the hoolock gibbon numbers the... Were identified from the government and its forest Department the taxonomy of the Khasi Hills ( community forests near )! And Kaptai ( 598.1/ha ) compared to those in Kaptai most likely important.
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