Sweet potato pie created by Shonda Chaplin. A mean of 3.56 samples was collected per village. The colors correspond to the five groups (red: group one, yellow: group two, green: group three, blue: group four, and pink: group five). Sub-Saharan agriculture is identified as being particularly vulnerable to ongoing climate change . In both cases, connections to the past resonate—connections to an African heritage and to a childhood comfort. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. Funding: This study was partly funded by the Agropolis Foundation’s “Agropolis Resource Center for Crop Adaptation and Diversity” (ARCAD) project, the French embassy in Togo (SCAC), Institut Sénégalais de la Recherche Agricole (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal; the Institut de la Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) in Dakar, Sénégal and Montpellier, France; the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) grant N°11514/2011/DDS/DESFP/PAES-436 to Kodjo Glato and the University of Lomé, Togo. For DAPC, we first performed a principal component analysis (PCA) to capture the large number of allele absence/presence (0/1) matrices on the most significant PCA axes. The last bar represents the mean PIC of the 12 markers. Like the Hannah, Okinawa sweet … Many of these are unique to a particular country or region. Here is the translation and the Japanese word for sweet potato: スイートポテト Edit. When K = 3, seven traits were associated. We used the same sampling protocol as in Togo, except that young leaves were collected instead of stems. In Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, the sweet potato is called batata. Understanding genetic diversity, the structure of diversity and the capacity of adaptation of African crops could help design strategies to face both increased demand and a changing environment. They knew exactly how much cinnamon, sugar, butter, milk, eggs and nutmeg to include with the sweet potato pie, as well as the ingredients and the lengthy process used to make their special homemade pie crusts. Indeed, farmers use phenotype to distinguish the plant . Japanese Sweet Potatoes are different from normal sweet potatoes and yams that you might be used to. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. Locus ib292 had the highest number of alleles and loci J263 and J315 the lowest (S3 Table). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g003. In terms of clustering between DAPC and STRUCTURE, the inferences of ancestry between groups were very similar (S6 Table). (2017) Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient. For K = 4 and K = 5, nine traits were associated. The trait was considered as specific to a group when the p-value of the test was < 0.05 for paired tests. A represents Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1; B Tropical accessions, C Tropical arid accessions, D Sahelian accessions, and E Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) implemented in the ADENEGET package  using R software 3.1.1  was used to assess the distribution of genetic diversity. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs. If you’re planning to bash the rat with a potato - sure! Think sweet potato, but a little more refined. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. This list of sweet potato cultivars provides some information about varieties and cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).Sweet potato was first domesticated in the Americas more than 5,000 years ago. The three other genetic groups: “Tropical arid accessions”, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2” contained accessions from both Togo and Senegal. We ran the admixture model with a number of populations from K = 1 to 20 with 15 runs using a 100.000 burn in period and 400.000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) steps. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s002. As of 2013, there are approximately 7,000 sweet potato cultivars. (i) Initial dataset (s) second dataset (1) represents the number of alleles on the 132 samples chosen randomly on data base of Roullier et al (2011). Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The difference is significant when p-value < 0.05. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s010. However, confirming this hypothesis would require not only a similar set of markers but also a very similar sampling strategy. ... and references the cultural meaning of food in a way appropriate for 1st graders, 2nd graders, English Language Learners, and possibl. In Mexico, Peru, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote (alternatively spelled kamote in the Philippines), derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. “Tropical accession” also had very specific traits: the number of lobes, type of central lobe of the leaf, and pubescence (S8 Table). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s007. Learn how to bake sweet potatoes perfectly and get my recipe for BBQ chicken stuffed sweet potatoes. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Among the 37 villages sampled, only one had four genetic groups, five villages had three genetic groups and 15 villages had two genetic groups. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s012. Therefore, to honor those West African ancestral connections, Gullah people recognize sweet tata and other foods as a major part of our cultural identity. The least represented group was “Sahelian accessions”, which was found in only 8% of the villages. The root traits recorded were root shape, main color of the skin, secondary color of the skin, main color of the flesh, secondary color of the flesh, distribution of the secondary color of the flesh. No, Is the Subject Area "Togo" applicable to this article? Find the best free sweet potato videos. Group one and group five were composed of accessions with no clear specific geographical origin, called “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2” respectively. A Wilcoxon paired test with the number of alleles was used to assess differences in diversity. We performed a principal component analysis to obtain synthetic uncorrelated climatic contrast. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. In our case, the graph proposed 3 axes (PCs); or (b) the percentage of variance explained; 74.7% of variance was chosen which corresponded to 12 axes (PCs). Yellow- or white-fleshed sweet potatoes have a dry and crumbly texture when baked and are not moist enough to make tender pancakes, so use the orange variety. A mean of 5 samples were collected per village. They never used written instructions in the kitchen. To assess relationships between agro-morphological traits and genetic clustering, we performed Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. Consequently, a different set of traits found in each genetic group may reflect random variation of phenotype or selection by farmers. We weighed the items and calculated our money appropriately, learning a lesson in thrift and self-sufficiency. The sampled village arearranged following the first axis according to a climatic gradient from the humid south (DANYI PEYEYEME) to the arid tropical north (GABONBONG) of Togo, followed by the Saharan climat of Senegal (DAGANA). University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo, Affiliations In the early 20th century , "soft" sweet potatoes… Here, we focus on the sweet potato. With the a-score optimization function applied to the dataset, the number of PCA to be retained ranged from two to four.  reported an average of four alleles per locus in 192 accessions from Uganda with 10 SSRs used. For a healthy alternative to potato chips, you can dehydrate sweet potatoes into crunchy snacks using your oven or a dehydrator. With these 11 SSR markers, we found an average of 7.36 alleles for the West African sample, 9.09 alleles for the Oceanian sample and 10.90 alleles for the American sample (Fig 2). Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The GPS coordinates of each sampling site were recorded. No, Is the Subject Area "Africa" applicable to this article? SSRs were diluted and pooled for migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer. Group five contained 19 accessions including five from Senegal and the rest from Togo. Examples of sweet potato in a sentence, how to use it. To do so, for each accession we downloaded the BIOCLIM data  composed of 19 bioclimatic variables and monthly climate data (temperature and precipitation). By the end of our phone conversation, she and I had spun tales from our memories of this simple root, tales that revealed its cultural, historic, economic, and nutritional influence on our community. Also, Chaplin is an avid reader. All the accessions from the northern part of Togo were in this group, named “Tropical arid accessions”. In Senegal, we collected accessions in four villages in the region where most sweet potato is cultivated (region of Saint-Louis). Pexels. We assessed the composition of the group at different K values (3, 4, 5, 6) and K = 5 appeared to be the best number of genetic groups to explain the genetic data on the basis of significant statistical analysis, individual position in the group, and membership probability. Wilcoxon paired tests were then performed for each significant trait to assess which specific genetic group differed significantly from the others. In the tropical-arid accessions, most of the accessions sampled in Togo were from the northern part of the country, where the climate is arid. However, genetic bottlenecks created during the introduction and later selection may also have played a role in this genetic differentiation. To allow comparison with our sampling number, we randomly sampled 132 accessions both for Tropical America and Oceania. The PCR was performed on a Techne Gradient TC Plus Thermocycler using the following program: 15 min at 95°C, 35 cycles of 30 s at 94°C, 90 s at hybridization temperature varying from 58°C to 60°C (S2 Table), 60 s at 72°C and 30 min at 60°C. Cultivation of the sweet potato is still low in West Africa, and lacks an inventory of diversity and a conservation plan, as well as a study of its sensitivity to pests and diseases . Probably first introduced as a tuber in Tanzania , the plant then dispersed from East to West Africa . GeneMapper software version 4.1 was used to score alleles. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s014. Because of her upbringing on a rural farm, my mother saw high value in sweet potatoes and other farm-grown vegetables because of their freshness. The two datasets showed approximately the same thing. The analysis using STRUCTURE tend also favored five clusters (S4 Fig). The nutritional content of potatoes and sweet potatoes. The Gullah culture and language were developed by descendants of enslaved Africans—predominately people from West Africa—who were brought to America primarily because of their skills in the cultivation of rice. However, no significant difference was found between West Africa and Oceania (S5 Table). Sweet potatoes are in the plant family Convolvulaceae (morning glory) Ipomoea batatas potato, Solanaceae (nightshade) S. tuberosum. Yams are starchy and have a rough, brown exterior. Sweet potato slips are produced by year-old sweet potatoes in hot … Yes Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, The characteristics of the stem recorded were vine internode length, diameter between nodes, color, port and pubescence. N'T fork-tender after five minutes, continue to microwave in one-minute increments until done ( 2017 ) structure of [. And Nenonene Amen Yawo ( ESA ) from Senegal field was weeded manually a! 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