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utilitarianism in business

[73] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Consumers are looking for companies that they can trust, and employees work better when there is a solid model of ethics in place. [24] Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. If a healthy person wanders into the hospital, his organs could be harvested to save four lives at the expense of his one life. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. [21] Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. John Stuart Mill adapted Jeremy … Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? But utilitarianism has been attacked on many fronts, and by renowned philosophers. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? Today, having a formalized code of business ethics is more important than ever. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. Explain why and how using that approach might play out. [22] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. One very good example is the airlines industry. Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. How is happiness defined? Gammon, Katharine, “The Human Cost of Amber,” The Atlantic, Aug. 2, 2019.   https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, Grimaldi, David, “Amber,” Current Biology Magazine. Similarly, monopolistic competition teaches one business to flourish at the expense of others. The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest numb… Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. b. Social justice is a concept holding that all people should have equal access to wealth, health, well-being, privileges, and opportunity. Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people. Those who favour such voluntary programmes give greater weight to consent and privacy than to well‐being and life. See more. In contrast to the utilitarian philosophy, the deontological one is focused on the action itself, rather … In this Wireless Philosophy video, Julia Markovits (Cornell University) gives an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarianism. In relating its consequential content to the Ford Pinto case, it would seem that the application of ethics had been dismissed in favour of profits, reputation and unethical practices. Which ones? [76] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Utilitarianism is already widely used as a business ethic approach, although it is not well developed in the literature. Utilitarianism seems to require punishing the innocent in certain circumstances, such as these. [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. The Importance Of Utilitarianism In Business; The Importance Of Utilitarianism In Business. A documentary and six short videos reveal the behavioral ethics biases in super-lobbyist Jack Abramoff's story. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. [43] Zachary Y. Kerr et al., Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports, Pediatrics 144(5): e20192190. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. [49], The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. One such way is utilitarianism, or the belief that the most ethical … [26] James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). Business analysts, legislators, and scientists weigh daily the resulting benefits and harms of policies when deciding, for example, whether to invest resources in a certain public project, whether to approve a new drug, or whether to ban a certain pesticide. [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. [51] Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? [32] Many researchers in the area recently published an article saying: Contrary to common perception, the clinical syndrome of CTE has not yet been fully defined. Explain. The field is surprisingly new. For example, the airline industry offers first class, … A Defense of a utilitarian approach to business ethics, written for Business Ethics: A Philosophical Approach Edited by Werhane and Donaldson. A political issue? Why or why not? We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with. As with Bentham’s formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. A labor union is an organization that represents the collective interests of workers in negotiations with employers. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. [47] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Utilitarianism and utility. In the workplace, though, utilitarian ethics are difficult to achieve. Utilitarianism, at its most basic, states that something is moral, or good when it produces the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. [62] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. [65] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? ... organisations in business and government, plus the not for profit se ctor - are faced with many . Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players. [70] Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). [59] At the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries. [7], If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. In the eyes of a HR manager, by taking action the majority of the stakeholders would benefit from a moral organisation adhering to their code of conduct, conducting fairness in all of their business activities. [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? As with Bentham’s … [75] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. Support your position with data and facts. We all know that business class passengers pay a premium … If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? [79] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that suggests that the best actions are those that maximize utility. What is the importance of utilitarianism in business? Pleasure or Happiness Is the Only Thing That Truly Has Intrinsic Value. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Why or why not? Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. 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