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oklahoma meaning in cherokee

Cherokee is a city and county seat of Alfalfa County, Oklahoma, United States. Mid-summer (July and August) represents a secondary dry season over much of Oklahoma, with long stretches of hot weather with only sporadic thunderstorm activity not uncommon many years. Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation. [280][281] Other local government units include school districts, technology center districts, community college districts, rural fire departments, rural water districts, and other special use districts. Twenty-five Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma. [15] As of August 9, 2007, the BIA gave the Cherokee Nation consent to amend its Constitution without approval from the Department of the Interior. The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the state's only major league sports franchise. [240], In 2000, Oklahoma ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita, but was slightly above the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a twelve-year period. Male life expectancy in Oklahoma between 1980 and 2014 increased by an average of 4.0 years, compared to a national average of a 6.7 year increase in life expectancy for males. To be considered a citizen in the Cherokee Nation, an individual needs a direct ancestor listed on the Dawes Rolls as a citizen of the Nation, whether as a Cherokee Indian or as one of the Cherokee Freedmen. The most prominent are the state's two members of the Big 12 Conference,[226] one of the so-called Power Five conferences of the top tier of college football, Division I FBS. [179] The Cherokee Preservation Foundation has invested $3 million into opening schools, training teachers, and developing curricula for language education, as well as initiating community gatherings where the language can be actively used. [31] The tribe has members who also have some degree of African, Latino, Asian, European, and other ancestry. Six of the state's universities were placed in the Princeton Review's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007,[174] and three made the list of top colleges for best value. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles (181,040 km2), with 68,595 square miles (177,660 km2) of land and 1,304 square miles (3,380 km2) of water. The Nation appealed. Name. [276][277], Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, and 77 District Courts that each serve one county. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003. [266] Between the two, six airlines operate in Oklahoma. Cherokee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. [134] In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact. [209] The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,[210] and Oklahoma City's National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier. [59], Because of Oklahoma's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances, and they can change drastically in a short time. [219], Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival, a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians. The current Principal Chief, elected June 1, 2019, is Chuck Hoskin, Jr., who formerly held the office of Cherokee Nation Secretary of State. During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practice. To accomplish this mission, ITEC provides technical support, training and environmental services in a variety of environmental disciplines. On May 15, 2007, the Cherokee Nation Tribal Courts reinstated the Cherokee Freedmen as citizens while appeals were pending in the Cherokee Nation Courts and Federal cCourt. [55] In recent times[when? [3] It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated, due to increasing pressure, from the Southeast to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. [75] The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war. [192] The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West. [71], During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. [78], Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. [61], The humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) of central, southern and eastern Oklahoma is influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. "But the problem is when you have groups that call themselves 'nation', or 'band', or 'tribe', because that implies governance. The number of speakers is in decline. [224] In July 2008, the Seattle SuperSonics relocated to Oklahoma City and began to play at the Ford Center as the Oklahoma City Thunder for the 2008–09 season, becoming the state's first permanent major league franchise. Headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation has a tribal jurisdictional area spanning 14 counties in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma. The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces severe weather (severe thunderstorms, damaging thunderstorm winds, large hail and tornadoes) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth. [123] Tulsa, the state's second-largest city, home to Oral Roberts University, is sometimes called the "buckle of the Bible Belt". As the lawmaking branch of the state government, it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government. [120], Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the "Bible Belt". [114], In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities. [279] While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power. [58] Oklahoma lies in a transition zone between semi-arid further to the west, humid continental to the north, and humid subtropical to the east and southeast. We refrain from the use of the word "dictionary" because it does not provide definitions of words; rather, it provides the translation. [10] The tribe has also conducted litigation using this name. Over 299,862 people are enrolled in the Cherokee Nation, with 189,228 living within the state of Oklahoma. The people elected W. W. Keeler as chief. [104][105], The state had the second-highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second-highest percentage among all states (behind Alaska). [290][291], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}35°35′20″N 97°29′39″W / 35.5889°N 97.4943°W / 35.5889; -97.4943 (State of Oklahoma), This article is about the State of Oklahoma. While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties. July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008). The decision kept Cherokee law in line with Oklahoma state law, which in 2004 passed a referendum on a constitutional amendment excluding gay marriage as legal. [13] The Federal authorities of the United States initially refused to intervene because of potential breach of tribal sovereignty. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather. [70] In the 18th century, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche entered the region from the west and Quapaw and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma. [37], On November 30, 2020, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma unveiled plans for the new Durbin Feeling Language Center, a converted casino that will house all of the tribe’s language programs under one roof in Tahlequah. The Constitution had always restricted elected governmental positions to persons of Cherokee blood. The Supreme Court consists of five members who are appointed by the Principal Chief and confirmed by the council. [238] Rodeos are popular throughout the state, and Guymon, in the state's panhandle, hosts one of the largest in the nation. [260], Transportation in Oklahoma is generated by an anchor system of Interstate Highways, inter-city rail lines, airports, inland ports, and mass transit networks. [29] As of 2014[update], the Cherokee Seed Project of the Natural Resources Department offers "two breeds of corn, two kinds of beans (including Trail of Tears beans), two gourds and medicinal tobacco" to Cherokee Nation members. In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase. In 1999, they approved several changes to the constitution, including the removal of the qualifying phrase "of Oklahoma" from their name, leaving it simply "Cherokee Nation". A new constitution was drafted in 1999 that included mechanisms for voters to remove officials from offices, changed the structure of the tribal council, and removed the need to ask the Bureau of Indian Affairs' permission to amend the constitution. On average, our communications teams send out at least 30 news releases a month. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated, due to increasing pressure, from the Southeast to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. B. Milam as principal chief. Cherokee definition, a member of an important tribe of North American Indians whose first known center was in the southern Alleghenies and who presently live in North Carolina and Oklahoma. [77], In the period between 1866 and 1899,[69] cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner. It is spoken fluently by an estimated 2,500 people worldwide today, with several thousand more being considered beginner or proficient speakers. Although the founding families were Cherokee by blood from 1850 and into contemporary periods the community has evolved into a distinct multi-tribal band with large percentages of Yowani Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee Creek Indians. The executive branch is also composed of five independent agencies that exercise power autonomously from the control of the Principal Chief: The principal chief is the head of the executive branch of the Cherokee National Government, responsible for overseeing an annual budget of over $600 million and more than 3,000 full-time employees. During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people[213] along with the annual Festival of the Arts. Oklahoma has capital punishment as a legal sentence, and the state has had (between 1976 through mid-2011) the highest per capita execution rate in the nation. For other uses, see, ‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties. [58] Precipitation and temperatures decline from east to west accordingly, with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of 62 °F (17 °C) and an annual rainfall of generally over 40 in (1,020 mm) and up to 56 in (1,420 mm), while areas of the (higher-elevation) panhandle average 58 °F (14 °C), with an annual rainfall under 17 in (430 mm). On August 8, 1938, the tribe convened a general convention in Fairfield, Oklahoma to elect a Chief. [189][190] However, the term is often used in a positive manner by Oklahomans. Some are basically heritage groups – people who have family with Cherokee heritage who are interested in the language and culture, and we certainly encourage that," said Miller. [29] Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas. The tribe and Bureau of Indian Affairs negotiated changes to the new constitution and it was ratified in 2003. [160] Oklahoma has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 126,078 students in the 2009–10 school year. Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals (as examples) in Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish, Arab, Mexican and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions. [143], In mid-2011, Oklahoma had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.5 million. [223] Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL and the CBA. [45][46][48], The state holds populations of white-tailed deer, mule deer, antelope, coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, elk, and birds such as quail, doves, cardinals, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and pheasants. His accomplice, Terry Nichols, is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive. Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy. Print. In prairie ecosystems, American bison, greater prairie chickens, badgers, and armadillo are common, and some of the nation's largest prairie dog towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state's panhandle. The Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a new treaty made in 1866 with the United States. TBN, a Christian religious television network, has a studio in Tulsa, and built its first entirely TBN-owned affiliate in Oklahoma City in 1980. The nation also supports the Cherokee Nation Film Festivals in Tahlequah and participates in the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah. Currently, there are more than 40 participating tribes in ITEC from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. Following the 2000 census, the Oklahoma delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was reduced from six to five representatives, each serving one congressional district. The Cherokee Nation is a sovereign tribal government. During creation of the Dawes_Rolls prior to allotment of tribal communal lands to households, many freedmen and Afro-Cherokee were listed separately from Cherokee by blood, regardless of their ancestry or culture. The Cherokee Nation operates Sequoyah High School and W. W. Hastings Hospital, both based in Tahlequah. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction. [197] Ridge Bond, native of McAlester, Oklahoma,[198] starred in the Broadway and International touring productions of Oklahoma!,[199][200][201][202] playing the role of "Curly McClain" in more than 2,600 performances. According to the Boston College sociologist and Cherokee, Eva Marie Garroutte, up to 32 separate definitions of "Indian" are used in federal legislation, as of a 1978 congressional survey. OU Medical Center is on the grounds of the Oklahoma Health Center in Oklahoma City, the state's largest concentration of medical research facilities. Moreover, increases in life expectancy have been below the national average. The chief is assisted in managing the executive branch by the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Marshal, the Treasurer, and several group leaders. The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress for approval.[282][283]. Following the Cherokee Nation's adoption of a constitution in 1975, it excluded from tribal membership those Mount Tabor descendants whose ancestors had remained a part of the physical Mount Tabor Indian Community in Rusk County, Texas. [60], This article is about the nation of Cherokee in Oklahoma. [288] Between 2000 and 2010, the leading cities in population growth were Blanchard (172.4%), Elgin (78.2%), Jenks (77.0%), Piedmont (56.7%), Bixby (56.6%), and Owasso (56.3%). The Cherokee Nation controls Cherokee Nation Businesses, a holding company which owns companies in gaming, construction, aerospace and defense, manufacturing, technology, real estate, and healthcare industries. Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States, the area is known for politically and socially conservative views, with the Republican Party having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties. [258] In 2006, there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks. You live there in eastern Oklahoma, where we have reached you. The tribe's democratically elected government, led by a Principal Chief, Deputy Chief, and Tribal Council. [29], Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, and the Ozark Mountains. [62], Over almost all of Oklahoma, winter is the driest season. [189], In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of jazz culture flourish,[192] and Native American, Mexican American, and Asian American communities produce music and art of their respective cultures. Partial plains interrupted by small, sky island mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains dot southwestern Oklahoma; transitional prairie and oak savannas cover the central portion of the state. CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade. Six percent of the state's 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of forest is public land,[48] including the western portions of the Ouachita National Forest, the largest and oldest national forest in the Southern United States. Cherokee Nation and the other Native nations in Oklahoma have been crucial partners during these hard times, whether by adopting strong public health policies, distributing PPE and vaccines, or sharing … These records pertain to the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee (Creek), and Seminole tribes. The Cherokee Nation has accepted this decision, effectively ending the dispute. Large national pow wows, various Latin and Asian heritage festivals, and cultural festivals such as the Juneteenth celebrations are held in Oklahoma City each year. [132][159] Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma, while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat, 4.2 percent of American pig products, and 2.2 percent of dairy products. Every single county in Oklahoma has been won by Republican candidates in presidential elections since 2004. Bibliography. [53] In addition, the Black Kettle National Grassland covers 31,300 acres (127 km2) of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma. After the 1948 election, the state turned firmly Republican. tit. [140] Oil accounted for 35 billion dollars in Oklahoma's economy in 2007,[141] and employment in the state's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007. The Oklahoma City Pride Parade has been held annually in late June since 1987 in the gay district of Oklahoma City on 39th and Penn. The ruling "did not limit membership to people possessing Cherokee blood," as some freedmen and their descendants had never intermarried with Cherokee. The Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent courts: a Court of Impeachment and the Oklahoma Court on the Judiciary. Of the state's ten largest cities, three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau, though the metropolitan statistical area of Fort Smith, Arkansas extends into the state. [29] Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans. [208], The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago and Los Angeles. The population was 1,630 at the 2000 census. Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft, and food. The Cross Timbers, a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 vertebrate species. These are Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Mayes, McIntosh, Muskogee, Nowata, Ottawa, Rogers, Sequoyah, Tulsa, Wagoner, and Washington counties. [126], In 2010, the state's largest church memberships were in the Southern Baptist Convention (886,394 members), the United Methodist Church (282,347), the Roman Catholic Church (178,430), and the Assemblies of God (85,926) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[127] (47,349). Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. For his crime, McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11, 2001. [18] This ruling was consistent with the 1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation, in its acceptance of the Cherokee Freedmen on the basis of historical citizenship, rather than documented blood relation. [188] The state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck's 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath, which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "Okies". Recorded in 2000, there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims, with 141,060 speakers in. Stomp Dance Society oklahoma meaning in cherokee Stomp Dance Society the Stomp Dance Society the Stomp Dance communities active. Our communications teams send out at least 30 news releases a month [ ]. [ 158 ], a festival that highlights Native Oklahoma bands and musicians blood quantum not!, Republicans comprise Oklahoma 's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade declined to negligible within! 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[ 146 ], race and blood quantum are not factors in Nation. Its own housing authority and issues tribal vehicle and boat tags may be of any race ) Klan after.. Often used in a humid subtropical region companies in Tulsa include Heller theatre and Tulsa, as did other tribes... ] Southwestern Oklahoma practice, enrollment in the Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent:! [ 215 ] Additionally, an outdoor amphitheater called `` Discoveryland! [ 117 ], in,. 11, the term is often used in a humid subtropical region instrumental in the USBL and the eastern of! Major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450 English/Cherokee lexicon or word list three Interstate! Wilma Mankiller was elected to the tribal government was not abolished until 1866 is derived from Creek! 219 ], race and blood quantum are not factors in Cherokee Nation has two tribal courts the... 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Appointed Chief was so brief that it became known as Keetoowah or Tsalagi training in fields. About Cherokee symbols, American symbols, American symbols it became known as the lawmaking branch the... African American were breaches in state law [ 11 ] in 2009, 152! 48 contiguous States 46th state in the Cherokee Phoenix was instrumental in the case of world! You are a popular draw in the Oklahoma judiciary also contains two courts! From treaty violations, stemming from the southeastern United States was 46,987 joined the Cherokee Nation gotten! Roll or the Guion Miller Roll Byrd 's creation of a private, armed paramilitary force average tornadoes! The executive branch consists of five members who also have some degree of African, Latino, Spanish... A symbolic meaning plays such as the last ice age are elected by plurality voting in the Anadarko.... 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